Hallel during Shacharis of Pesach

This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer


Buy me here or on Amazon.com

 

Hallel during Shacharis of Pesach:

The obligation:[1]

On each one of the Shalosh Regalim, [which includes, in the Diaspora, both days of Shavuos, the first two nights and days of Pesach, the nine days of Sukkos, including Shemini Atzeres, and also the eight days of Chanukah[2]], one is required to recite the complete Hallel during the day. This is a [positive[3]] Rabbinical command that was instituted by the prophets.[4] [This applies for both a congregation and a person who is praying in private.[5]]

 

 

Q&A

Are women obligated to recite Hallel?

Women are exempt from reciting Hallel.[6] Nevertheless, they are permitted to recite it if they so choose.[7] Regarding if women are to say a blessing-see the next Halacha!

 

 

The blessing over Hallel:[8]

On each one of the Shalosh Regalim [which includes, in the Diaspora, both days of Shavuos, the first two nights and days of Pesach, the nine days of Sukkos, including Shemini Atzeres, and also the eight days of Chanukah[9]] a blessing is said over the complete Hallel.[10] [This applies whether one is with a Minyan or Davening in private.[11]]

The Nussach of the blessing:[12] The blessing is “Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Likro[13] Es Hahallel.” One is not to conclude “Ligmor Es Hallel.”[14]

Being Yotzei the blessing with the Chazan versus saying it individually: If a Minyan is present, there is no Halachic precedence, and one can to choose to say the blessing himself, or be Yotzei with the Chazan, as each option contains an advantageous aspect.[15] When a Minyan is not present, it is better for each person to say their own blessing rather than be Yotzei with another person.[16] Nonetheless, the widespread custom today is for every individual to recite the blessing himself, even if a Minyan is present, and so is the proper directive.[17] [Some recite it prior to the Chazan and hence complete it prior to the Chazan completing his blessing.[18] Others recite it together with the Chazan and some recite it after the Chazan.[19] Those who recite it after the Chazan, must intend to not be Yotzei the blessing with his recital.[20]]

 

 

Q&A

Are women who recite Hallel to recite a blessing before and after?

Some Poskim[21] rule that women are not to recite a blessing upon reciting Hallel. This applies even towards those women of Ashkenazi origin that usually recite a blessing prior to performing their optional Mitzvos. Other Poskim[22] however rule that women may recite the blessing and so is the widespread custom.[23]

What is the law if one accidently recited the blessing of Ligmor Es Hallel?[24]

He fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat the blessing.

 

 

When is Hallel to be recited?[25]

From when during the day, and until when in the day: Hallel may be recited throughout the entire day, from dawn [Alos Hashachar] until nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim]. Thus, if one did not recite Hallel immediately after Davening [Shemoneh Esrei of] Shacharis, he may recite it throughout the day, until Tzeis Hakochavim.

May one initially read Hallel before sunrise?[26] Lechatchilah, one should not recite Hallel prior to sunrise.[27] Nevertheless, if one transgressed and recited Hallel prior to sunrise, after daybreak he has fulfilled his obligation.

After Shemoneh Esrei:[28] Although Hallel may be recited throughout the day, it is best to recite it immediately after the Shacharis Shemoneh Esrei.[29] [It is permitted to recite Hallel prior to Davening Shacharis.[30] Nevertheless, according to the Arizal, Hallel is not to be said prior to Davening.[31]]

 

Q&A

May Hallel be recited with a blessing after sunset, prior to nightfall?[32]

No. One is to recite Hallel without a blessing.

May one eat before Hallel?[33]

One is to avoid eating prior to reciting Hallel, unless he is sick or weak in which case he is not to be stringent even as an act of piety. [Thus, even if one already Davened Shacharis but has not yet recited Hallel, he should avoid eating until he recites Hallel.]

 

 

Reading Hallel with the congregation:[34]

It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after [Shemoneh Esrei of] the Shacharis prayer.[35]

Reading Hallel with the congregation prior to Shacharis?[36] If one came to Shul after the congregation completed the Shacharis prayer [of Shemoneh Esrei] and has reached the saying of Hallel, and has not yet Davened Shacharis, then there is an opinion[37] who says that if there is no worry that the time of Shema will pass, it is best for him to first recite Hallel with the congregation, and afterwards Daven Shacharis. This applies even on those days that one who Davens without a Minyan recites the complete Hallel with a blessing according to all opinions. [Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening.[38] Practically, the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim is not to recite Hallel before Davening, as explained in the summary below.]

If one is in the middle of Davening:[39] If one is holding in middle of Davening, past Baruch Sheamar, at the time that the congregation begins to read Hallel, he is not to make an interval in order to read Hallel together with them. [This applies] on those days that the complete Hallel is recited [i.e. all of Sukkos and Chanukah; 2 days of Pesach, Shavuos].[40]

 

Summary:

One is to be particular to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after Shemoneh Esrei. If one is holding prior to Davening, some Poskim rule he is to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation. This applies for Hallel of all days. Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening. If one is holding within Pesukei Dezimra, he is not to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation on days that the complete Hallel is recited.

 

The Chabad Custom:[41]

No clear directive has been given with regards to the Chabad custom in whether one should say Hallel with the congregation prior to his Davening, if the circumstance occurs. Nevertheless, it is known that the Chabad Rebbeim would be careful to always pray with the same pace as the Minyan on Yom Tov in order to say Hallel with the congregation. This is despite the Rebbeim’s usual practice of praying at greater length than the Minyan. [Practically, the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim is not to recite it before Davening.[42]]

Should one who usually Davens in great length without the congregation do so on days that Hallel is said?[43]

The Rebbe Rashab would Daven Shacharis of Yom Tov on pace of congregation in order to say Hallel with the congregation after Shacharis, at its appropriate time.

 

Hefsek-Making an interval to answer Amen and the like:[44]

When the complete Hallel is recited, the laws of making a Hefsek [speech interval] during Hallel has the same laws as a Hefsek during the reading of the morning Shema, as explained in 66:1.[45] This applies for both the laws of Hefsek within individual paragraphs and between paragraphs.[46]

 

Standing for Hallel:[47]

Hallel is to be recited in a standing position.[48]

Leaning:[49] It is forbidden for one to lean on any item during Hallel [in a way that it supports him from falling[50]].[51]

Transgressed:[52] If one transgressed and recited Hallel in a sitting position he nevertheless fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat the recital of Hallel.[53]

 

Sparks of Chassidus

The meaning and effect of Hallel:[54]

The term Hallel means praise. This has one of two meanings. 1) That we thank and praise G-d for the great joy and for the revelations given to us from above. 2) That we draw down a revelation below. There is no contradiction between the two explanations, and rather it means that by us praising G-d we cause the great revelation of G-dliness below, which is the source of our joy. 

__________________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 488:2; 490:6-7 regarding Pesach; 494:4 regarding Shavuos; 644:1 regarding Sukkos and Pesach; 131:5; Siddur Admur; Siddur Shelah; Michaber 488:1; Rambam Chanukah 3:5; Shmuel Pesachim 117a; Erechin 10a; Taanis 28b

[2] Siddur Admur; The Siman for this is בבט”ח

[3] Admur 644:1

[4] Admur ibid; Rambam and Raavad ibid; Pesachim ibid

[5] Pashut! See Michaber 422:2 regarding Rosh Chodesh

[6] Admur 106:2; M”A 422:5; Mishnah Sukkah 38a; Tosafos Brachos 20b; Kaf Hachaim 422:28; See Admur in Kuntrus Acharon 296:3

The reason: As it is a Rabbinical time dependent Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[7] Kesher Gudal 23:7; Beis Oved 16

[8] Michaber 422:2; See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin for an overview in this matter

[9] Siddur Admur; The Siman for this is בבט”ח

[10] The reason: As the saying of Hallel on these days is a Rabbinical command that was instituted by the prophets. [Admur ibid]

[11] Pashut! As every individual is obligated in its recital. This is unlike the ruling regarding the abridged Hallel, in which case it is a mere custom, and hence subject to debate as to when a blessing is justified.

[12] Siddur Admur; Admur 488:2 [with slight nuance as explained next]; Rama 488:1; M”A 488:1; Tur 488 in name of Mahram Mirothenberg 464; Mordechai Shabbos 286

[13] So is the Nussach in the Siddur ibid, however in 488:2 Admur writes “Likros HaHallel.” The M”A ibid writes “Likro Hahallel.”

[14] Admur 488:2 in Stam opinion, and in conclusion; Taz 488:1; M”A 488:1; Tur in name of Maharam ibid; Mordechai ibid

The reason: As perhaps he will skip one word or even one letter, and it will cause his blessing to have been in vain, as he did not read it completely. [Admur ibid; Poskim ibid]

Other opinions in Admur: Some provinces are accustomed to recite “Ligmor Hahallel” in the blessing. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Tosafos Brachos 14a; Rambam ibid; Rosh Pesachim 2:5] They are not worried of the above-mentioned issue being that Ligmor can also mean reading. Nevertheless, it is better [even for them] to say Likros, like our custom. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 488:1]

[15] Admur 213:6; The advantage of fulfilling the blessing through one person is “Berov Am Hadras Melech”, (while the advantage of saying their own individual blessing is to personally say the blessing rather than be Yotzei through a messenger, and thus increase in blessings.) [See Admur ibid]

[16] Admur 489:1 as explained in previous footnote; M”A 213:7 and Tosefta Brachos 6:20 “Ten people who are doing a Mitzvah together”, implying that less than ten does not contain Berov Am; This can also be implied from Admur 8:11 and Michaber 8:5 who rules “If a few people are wearing the Tallis simultaneously, each one says their own blessing each person is to say the blessing on his own, although if they want, they can choose to have one person say the blessing, and the remainder will listen and answer Amen.”, now from the fact that Admur: Michaber plainly stated that each one should say the blessing on their own implies that it is preferable. [So learns M”B 8:13 in his initial inference]

[17] Admur 619:8 regarding Shehechiyanu, Birchas Hallel and Lulav “Although it is proper to be Yotzei with the Chazan due to Berov Am, nevertheless today …. every person should recite the blessing himself”; M”A 619:3; Chayeh Adam 5:17; M”B 8:13 that so is custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 213:2

The reason: As in majority of instances the Chazan does not have in mind to be Motzi the congregation. Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam ibid; M”B ibid]

[18] As is the simple understanding of Admur in 619:8 that when saying the blessing of Hallel to oneself one is to say it prior to the Chazan and answer Amen to his blessing. See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin under Hallel; So rules also Yesod Veshoresh Havodah 12:4 regarding reading Megillah, that the listeners may answer Amen to the Chazan’s blessing even if they already said their own blessing beforehand.

[19] As finishing the blessing prior to the Chazan causes an issue of an interval as how can one answer Amen prior to beginning Hallel after his blessing. So rules Yalkut Yosef Moadim 5:295 regarding the above case of Megillah; See Panim Meiros 2:5; Shaarei Teshuvah 167:11; See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin ibid

[20] Admur 213:4 (in parentheses) regarding all blessings; 489:12 regarding the Sefira; [See however Admur 296:17; 6:9, explained below]; Rashba 1:458, brought in Beis Yosef 489, regarding blessings; Rama 489:3 regarding blessing of Sefira “If he had in mind to not be Yotzei”; M”A 489:8, explained in Machatzis Hashekel and P”M 489 A”A 8; Elya Raba 489:12; M”B 489:17 limits this ruling to only blessings [and not verbal Mitzvos]; Michaber 6:4 regarding Birchas Hashachar “They intend to not be Yotzei”; Tehila Ledavid 6:4 in understanding of Michaber ibid [See however Michaber 489:3 and M”B 48918 who implies one is not Yotzei unless he has Kavana to be Yotzei] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 489:8;

Source of Admur’s ruling: This ruling of Admur that one can fulfill a verbal Mitzvah through overhearing another is a novelty that is not explicitly recorded in Poskim prior to Admur. However, it is rooted in a response of the Rashba 1:458 regarding whether one may repeat a blessing after hearing it from the Chazan, to which the Rashba answer’s that one may only do so if he had in mind to not be Yotzei, however if he had no Kavana then he is Yotzei according to those who rule that Mitzvos don’t need Kavana. This ruling of the Rashba is recorded and hinted to in the Michaber ibid and Rama ibid as well as the other Poskim. The novelty of Admur ibid is that he extends this ruling even to the Mitzvah of Sefira. It is possible to learn this way as well in the M”A ibid. as explained in the Machatzis Hashekel and P”M ibid.

[21] Yeshuos Yaakov 422:6; Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 422:28 in name of Yeshuos Yaakov ibid

[22] Biur Halacha 422:2 “Hallel”

[23] Yeshuos Yaakov ibid; Biur Halacha ibid

[24] Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 422:33

[25] Admur 488:3; Rambam Chanukah 3:9; Mishneh Megillah 20b

[26] Admur ibid; See also regarding Shofar: 588:1; Michaber 588:1

[27] The reason: As it appears like night in the eyes of the masses. [Admur ibid] In 588:1 Admur writes as follows regarding Shofar: Biblically, day begins from Alos Hashachar regarding all Halachic matters. Nevertheless, the Sages decreed that one must delay blowing the Shofar until after sunrise being that not all people are expert in the definition of Alos and hence in order to be certain that it is day, one must wait until sunrise. [Admur ibid; Rashi Megillah ibid]

[28] Admur 488:3; 131:5 in parentheses; See Rosh Hashanah 32b; Megillah 20b; 156:17

[29] The reason: As Zerizin Makdimim Lemitzvos. [ibid]

[30] See Admur 488:3, brought in next Halacha; Vetzaruch Iyun as to why even initially Hallel was not established to be recited prior to Shacharis. Perhaps the reason is because Hallel may only be recited after sunrise while one may Daven up until Shemoneh Esrei prior to sunrise.

[31] Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38

[32] Nitei Gavriel Chanukah 49:5; Regarding Shofar: Chayeh Adam 141:1; 144:20; Mishneh Berurah 588:1; Kaf Hachaim 588:2; 600:12; Regarding Lulav: M”A 658; Regarding Megillah: M”B 687:5; Kaf Hachaim 687:9; P”M 692 M”Z 3

Opinion of Admur: Admur ibid rules that from Alos until Tzeis is the permitted time for reciting Hallel. So writes Admur also regarding Shofar in 588:1 and 18:8 regarding Tzitzis. The source of Admur is from the Gemara Megillah 20b which states that until Tzeis Hakochavim it is considered day. This seems to imply that during Bein Hashmashos one may recite Hallel and blow Shofar even with a blessing! This is further inferred from the change of wording from the Tur 588 which writes simply “until night” while Admur specifies Tzeis. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol, as Bein Hashmashos is questionable whether it is night or day as rules Admur is 261:1, hence how can one say a blessing at that time. Practically, the Poskim rule one is to not recite a blessing past sunset. Likewise, in the Siddur Admur retracted his ruling regarding Tzitzis, and rules the blessing may not be recited after sunset.

[33] Sheilas Yaavetz 40; Birkeiy Yosef 422:5; Shaarei Teshuvah 422:5; Kaf Hachaim 422:30

[34] Admur 488:3;

[35] The reason: This is to be done in order so one be able to answer the prayer of Hodu and Ana together with the Chazan. [ibid] Alternatively, it is done in order to be Yotzei the Bracha with the congregation

[36] Admur ibid

[37] Kol Bo; M”A 422:6; Mentioned in 131:5

[38] Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38

[39] Admur ibid; M”A 422:6

[40] The reason: As the blessing of before and after Hallel would be considered an interval between the blessings of Baruch Sheamar and Yishtabach which are already recited in Pesukei Dezimra. Thus, only on Rosh Chodesh and the like in which some Poskim rule a blessing is never recited is one to make an interval and read it without a blessing. [M”A ibid]

[41] Igros Kodesh 17:67 [See also Igros Kodesh 15:170; 18:81; see Shulchan Menachem 2:250; Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:175]

[42] Hiskashrus 748; Rabbi Groner related in the name of the Rebbe, who said in the name of the Rebbe Rayatz, who said in the name of the Rebbe Rashab, that Hallel is not to be said outside of the order of Davening, as Davening Shemoneh Esrei without Hallel is like an old bread that has been baked a long time ago. [Hiskashrus 748]

[43] Igros Kodesh 17:67 [See also Igros Kodesh 15:170; 18:81; see Shulchan Menachem 2:250; Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:175]

[44] Admur 488:3; Michaber: Rama 422:4 and 488:1

[45] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

The reason: As the recital of Hallel on these days is a Rabbinical obligation and Mitzvah and hence receives a stricter status. [Admur ibid]

[46] Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 422; Kaf Hachaim 422:47

[47] Michaber 422:7; Admur 473:48; Shivlei Haleket 174

[48] The reason: The reason Hallel is recited while standing is because it serves as a testimony of praise to Hashem for all the miracles he has performed for us, and all testimonies must be performed standing. Alternatively, it is due to the verse recited in Hallel which states “Hallelu Es Hashem Omdim”. [Shivlei Haleket; Taz 422:4; M”B 422:28]

The reason that Hallel on the night of Pesach is nevertheless recited sitting: As on the night of Pesach all the actions are done in a way of Cheirus: freedom. [Admur ibid]

[49] M”A 422:11; Elya Raba 422:17; Chayeh Adam 118:9; See Admur 581:1 regarding Shofar

[50] Biur Halacha 422 “Meumad”; Regarding Shofar: Admur 581:1; Drashos Maharil Shofar; Darkei Moshe 585; M”A 585:1; Peri Chadash 585; Elya Raba 585:1; Birkeiy Yosef 585:4; Shaarei Teshuvah 585:1; Chayeh Adam 141:6; M”E 585:5; M”B 585:2; Kaf Hachaim 585:4

The reason: As in such a case this leaning is not defined as standing but as leaning. [Admur ibid; See also 607:7]

[51] The reason:  As anytime that standing is required it is forbidden to lean. This is opposed to the law by the Azara in which leaning is permitted, as standing is not required and rather it is only forbidden to sit due to disrespect. [M”A ibid] See Biur Halacha 422 “Meumad” for a discussion on this matter and why leaning by Hallel should be permitted based on the Shivlei Haleket which basis his ruling on the fact that they would stand in the Azara. Nevertheless, he concludes that based on the reason of the verse of Hallelu Es Hashem Omdim one should not lean.

[52] P”M 422 M”Z 4; M”B 422:28; Kaf Hachaim 422:58; Regarding Shofar: Admur ibid; M”A 585:1; Peri Chadash 585; Elya Raba 585:3; Birkeiy Yosef 585:2; Shaarei Teshuvah 585:1; Chayeh Adam 141:6; M”E 585:5; M”B 585:2; Kaf Hachaim 585:5

[53] The reason: As the above obligation to stand is a merely Rabbinical enactment. [Admur ibid regarding Shofar] 

[54]  Likkutei Torah Tzav page 28

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?