Determining your birthday

 Determining your birthday

 

Someone who was born during Bein Hashmashos:

If one was born on Bein Hashmashos, he is to choose one of the days to celebrate his birthday and fulfill the birthday customs. Some are accustomed to fulfill the customs on both days.[1]

 

If one was born on the 30th of Cheshvan/Kisleiv, when does he celebrate his birthday/Bar Mitzvah in a year that there is no 30th day in Cheshvan/Kisleiv?[2]

One who was born on the first day of Rosh Chodesh Kislev, which is the 30th of Cheshvan, and in the current year of his Bar Mitzvah there is no 30th day of Cheshvan, and hence Rosh Chodesh Kislev is only one day, he is not considered Bar Mitzvah until Rosh Chodesh Kislev, the 1st of Kislev.[3] [This same law applies likewise regarding one who was born on the 30th of Kislev, which was the first day of Rosh Chodesh, and in the current year of his Bar Mitzvah there is no 30th day of Kislev, he is not considered Bar Mitzvah until Rosh Chodesh Teves, the 1st of Teves.[4] Accordingly, regarding celebrating a birthday, one should only celebrate the birthday upon the arrival of the 1st of Kisleiv/Teves. However, the Rebbe once gave an answer in such a situation for one to celebrate his birthday on both days, the 29th of the month and on Rosh Chodesh.[5]]

 

Q&A

If one was born on the 1st of Kisleiv, which was the only day of Rosh Chodesh, when does he celebrate his birthday/Bar Mitzvah in a year that there is two days of Rosh Chodesh Kislev?

If one was born on the first day of Kislev, which was the only day of Rosh Chodesh, and in the current year of his Bar Mitzvah Rosh Chodesh Kislev is two days, he is considered Bar Mitzvah starting from the first day of Rosh Chodesh Kislev which is 30th of Cheshvan.[6] However some Poskim[7] question this matter and perhaps he does not become Bar Mitzvah until the 1st of Kislev.

If one was born on the 1st of Teves, which was the only day of Rosh Chodesh, when does he celebrate his birthday/Bar Mitzvah in a year that there is two days of Rosh Chodesh Teves?

This follows the same law as above.

 

  1. In which Adar is one to celebrate a birthday or Bar-Mitzvah?[8]

If one was born in Adar of a leap year:

If the current year contains one Adar:[9] If one was born in Adar of a leap year and the current year only contains one Adar then he celebrates his birthday and Bar-Mitzvah on that same date in the current Adar. This applies whether he was born on Adar I or Adar II. Thus if Reuvein was born on the 29th of Adar I and Shimon on the 1st of Adar II then in the current year with a single Adar Reuvein celebrates his birthday and Bar-Mitzvah on the 29th of Adar and Shimon on the 1st of Adar. [Hence although Reuvein is older than Shimon he nevertheless celebrates his Bar-Mitzvah later than Shimon, if his 13th year is not a leap year.]

If the current year is also a leap year:[10] If one was born during Adar of a leap year and the current year is also a leap year, then he celebrates his birthday and Bar-Mitzvah on the day of the Adar that he was born in. Thus if Reuvein was born on the 29th of Adar I and Shimon on the 1st of Adar II then in the current leap year Reuvein celebrates his birthday and Bar-Mitzvah on the 29th of Adar I and Shimon on the 1st of Adar II.

If one was born in Adar of a non-leap year and now it is a leap year:[11]

If one was born during Adar of a regular year and the current year is a leap year then he celebrates his birthday and Bar-Mitzvah on the date of his birth in Adar II. Thus if Reuvein was born on the 12th of Adar of a non-leap year than in a leap year Reuvein celebrates his birthday and Bar-Mitzvah on the 12th of Adar II.

 

Summary:

Current year is not a leap year: Everyone who was born in Adar, whether of a leap year or not, celebrates his birthday in Adar on the corresponding date.

Current year is a leap year: All Birthdays and Bar-Mitzvahs are celebrated in the second Adar unless one was born in Adar I.

Q&A

What is one to do if he was born on the 30th of Adar I and in the current year there is only one Adar of 29 days?

If one was born on the 30th of Adar of a leap year and the current year is a non-leap year, which hence only contains 29 days in Adar, then some Poskim[12] rule one celebrates his [birthday and] Bar-Mitzvah on the 30th of Shevat. He is considered from that day and on like a complete Gadol. Other Poskim[13] however rule he is to celebrate on the first of Nissan. Other opinions[14] have also been mentioned. Practically, he is to celebrate on the 30th of Shevat, although it is proper to be stringent regarding fulfilling a Biblical obligation on behalf of others until the 1st of Nissan.[15] Regarding the birthday celebration perhaps it is proper to celebrate the birthday customs on both dates, the 30th of Shevat and on the 1st of Nissan.[16]

If one was born in Adar of a non-leap year and now it is a leap year in which Adar is one to follow the birthday customs?[17]

Some have received a directive from the Rebbe to celebrate the birthday twice, in Adar I and Adar II. Rebbetzin Chayah Mushka was born on the 25th of Adar and it is recounted that in a leap year the Rebbe would visit the Ohel on this date in both months. Likewise, the Rebbe would recite both chapters of Psalms [the new and old] until the 25th of Adar 2. The Rebbe Rayatz wrote two letters to the Rebbetzin in honor of her birthday in both Adar Rishon and Sheiyni.[18]  

When is the Upsherinish to be celebrated for a child that was born in Adar?[19]

This follows the same law as a Bar Mitzvah, and hence if the child was born in a elap year, he is to celebrate his upsherinish in whichever month of Adar that he was born. If however he was born in non-leap year, he is to celebrate his Upsherinish in the second Adar. [The above is with regards to cutting the hair. Certainly however, the child may begin to wear Tzitzis and a Yarmulka prior to this date, from the fiurst Adar and even beforehand.] 

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[1] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 55/16 that by a Bar Mitzvah one is to be Machmir by a Safek; See Hiskashrus 776/6 and footnote 7 that there is no known arbitration of the Rebbe on this matter. Rav Y.S. Ginzberg understands that in such a case one is to keep both days.

[2] Admur 55/13; M”A 55/10; Elya Raba 55/9; Yad Ahron; M”B 55/45; Ketzos Hashulchan 15/6; Derech Hachaim; Kneses Hagedola; Poskim in  Kaf Hachaim 55/60

[3] The reason: Although regarding the months and years we count starting from the second day of Rosh Chodesh, which is the main day [of the coming month] while the first day of Rosh Chodesh belongs to the previous month, nevertheless the child does not complete a full 13 years to the day until 29 full days have passed from Mar Cheshvan, just as it was when he was born, in which 29 days had passed from Mar Cheshvan. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[4] Elya Raba 55/9; P”M 55 A”A 10; Machatzis Hashekel 55/10; Tehila Ledavid 55/8; Kaf Hachaim 55/60

[5] Heichal Menachem 2/38-9

[6] M”B 55/45 in name of Elya Raba; Bach; Rav Akiva Eiger; Ketzos Hashulchan 15/6

[7] Shaareiy Teshuvah 55/5 in name of Elya Raba 55/10 who states that perhaps according to M”A ibid who rules the 30th day belongs to the previous month then one does not become Bar Mitzvah until Kislev begins.

[8] See Igros Kodesh 24/295; Yerushalmi Megillah 1/5 that discusses which month is considered the Chodesh Haiibur.

[9] Michaber 55/10

Why was this law omitted from the Shulchan Aruch Harav Chapter 55? Tzaruch Iyun Gadol regarding why this Halacha was omitted from Admur chapter 55, despite him bringing another Halacha from that same Magen Avraham [55/10]. [Igros Kodesh 24/295; 28/129; Hisvasyus ibid] Perhaps Admur wanted to bring it in his section on the laws of Purim, however it is very difficult to accept such an answer. [Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 603] Alternatively Admur wanted to bring it in the Mahadura Basra [Hisvadyus 1986 2/538] Alternatively in the original manuscript this Halacha was found in full and was mistakenly omitted by the editors. [So suggests Kuntrus Hashulchan p. 20 as a certainty.]

[10] Shvus Yaakov 1/9; Peri Chadash; Eliyahu Raba; Levush 685; Yeshuos Yaakov 55/6; Mahri Mintz; Machatziz Hashekel and Beir Heiytiv 55/11 in name of Shvus Yaakov ibid which concludes that so is the ruling of all Baalei Horah; Chasam Sofer 14 [however see Chasam Sofer 163]; Derech Hachaim Kaddish 3; Chayeh Adam 66/1; Kitzur SHU”A 15/2; Chasan Sofer 99; Aruch Hashulchan 55/14; M”B 55/43

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that by a leap year one always celebrates on Adar II even if he was born in Adar I. [Magen Avraham 55/10; Olas Tamid 55/5; Shulchan Shlomo 55/5]

[11] Rama 55/10; See Igros Kodesh 24/295; Shulchan Menachem 3/307 for a discussion on why the Yerushalmi Megillah 1/5 does not mention whether a Bar Mitzvah is in Adar Rishon or Sheiyni.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to celebrate his birthday and Bar Mitzvah in Adar Rishon. [Mahrash Levi 16] Some Poskim rule that one is to be stringnet like this opinion, for the Bar Mitzvah boy to begin wearing Tefillin in Adar Rishon. [Beis Shlomo Even Haezer 56] Practically, this is not the custom, and rather all customs are followed only from the second of Adar . [Shulchan Melachim ibid] Regaridng Tefillin however, the Chabad custom is to begin wearing them two months before the Bar Mitzvah.

[12] Minchas Yitzchak 6/8; Binyan Tziyon 141; Mishpatecha Leyaakov 13; So also rules regarding a Yartzite: M”B 568/42 in name of Magen Avraham 568/20, following the Girsa of the Machatzis Hashekel and Yad Efraim in M”A ibid, however see P”M ibid for a different Girsa

[13] Igros Moshe Y.D. 3/159 regaridng a yartzite; See Nitei Gavriel 12/4 footnote 7 for the different opinions on this matter; So rules regarding one who was born on the 30th of Cheshvan or Kisleiv that he does not become Bar Mitzvah until the 1st of Kisleiv/Teves: Admur 55/13; M”A 55/10; Elya Raba 55/9; Yad Ahron; M”B 55/45; Ketzos Hashulchan 15/6; Derech Hachaim; Kneses Hagedola; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 55/60; and so rules regarding one who was born on the 1st of Kisleiv and the next year there are two days Rosh Chodesh Kisleiv, that he celebrates only on the 1st day of Kisleiv: Shaareiy Teshuvah 55/5 in name of Elya Raba

[14] See Nitei Gavriel ibid that some say one is to celebrate on the 1st of Adar

[15] Piskeiy Teshuvos 55/18; Nitei Gavriel ibid; Heard from Harav Yekusiel Frakash

[16] So answered the Rebbe in a similar scenario of one who was born on the 30th of Cheshvan, that he should celebrate twice on the 29th and the 1st. [Heichal Menachem 2/38-9]

[17] Shulchan Menachem 3 p. 353

[18] See Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz volume 15

[19] Nitei Gavriel 1/8

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