All Laws-Bedikas Chametz

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Bedikas Chametz

 

Introduction:

In the previous chapter, the laws of cleaning the home for Chametz were discussed. The obligation to clean the home is a result of the Rabbinical decree that disowned Chametz may not remain in one’s home over Pesach, as explained there. Included in this decree, was that every Jew must perform an inspection, to ensure that in truth no Chametz remains in the home. This verification process is known as the Bedika and carries a number of laws and regulations as instituted by the Sages. One who does not perform a Bedika, or does not do so properly as required by Halacha, has not fulfilled the Rabbinical institution of cleaning the home Chametz, even if in truth it was cleaned in other ways. Thus, the cleaning of the home which was discussed in the previous chapter is only the first step of the Mitzvah, which culminates with the Bedika inspection discussed here.

 

1. The obligation:[1]

The Sages obligated one to inspect their home and property on the night of the 14th with a candle in search for Chametz, in order to verify that no Chametz remains in their home or property during Pesach. This inspection serves as the culmination of the Mitzvah of cleaning one’s home for Chametz, and is cordially known by its Hebrew term called Bedikas Chametz. See Introduction above, Chapter 2 Halacha 7 and Chapter 3 Halacha 1 for the full background behind the obligation!

 

2. In what areas is one obligated to perform the Bedika inspection at night?

All the areas that are obligated to be cleaned, as explained in chapter 3 Halacha 3[2] are required to be checked for Chametz at night with the use of a candle [or flashlight and the like].[3] This applies even if one has completely cleaned and checked that area by day.[4] [Accordingly, all the areas that were already cleaned for Pesach must be rechecked at night with a Bedika using candlelight [or flashlight].[5] However, some Poskim[6] rule that once the area has been properly cleaned, even during the day, it no longer needs to be checked at all, and so is the custom of many. Other Poskim[7] rule that all pre-cleaned moveable items merely require a swift glance at night, and not a thorough checking. Practically, it is best to be stringent like the former approach which requires a Bedika at night to even cleaned areas, and so was the directive of the Rebbe Rashab.[8] This Bedika is valid on any night, even prior to the 14th.[9] Accordingly, the following advice should be used to lessen the burden of rechecking everything on the night of the 14th:[10] After cleaning an individual item, such as a drawer, shelf, cabinet, fridge, room, and the like, one is to check the item that night using a flash light or room light, and intend to perform the Bedika on it at this time. For example, if one cleaned the fridge on the 10th of Nissan, he should check it that night with a flashlight/room light, and only then line it. A blessing is not recited on this Bedika.[11] In all cases, for the Bedika to remain valid, one is to make sure that Chametz is guarded from that area from here and onwards.[12] Likewise, one is to leave at least one area unchecked, which he will check with a blessing on the night of the 14th.[13]]

 

 

Summary:

All areas that require cleaning for Chametz, likewise require a Bedika inspection to be performed with candle light [or flash light] at night to verify their cleanliness. In order to lessen the burden of requiring a rechecking of the entire home and its belongings on the night of the 14th, one can intend to check the room/item the same night that it was cleaned, even several days before the night of the 14th, and thus fulfill his Mitzvah of Bedika without needing to recheck it later on. Nonetheless, many are lenient to not recheck at night any area or furniture that was thoroughly scrubbed and cleaned from Chametz.

 

Q&A

Does one need to perform Bedikas Chametz towards Chametz vessels?

Some Poskim[14] rule that all Chametz vessels require a Bedika inspection. Practically, the custom is not to perform a Bedika on vessels and to suffice with washing the utensils.[15] One is however to check with a candle the inside of an oven and microwave.[16]

 

Does one have to do Bedikas Chametz to Chametz areas that will be sold to the gentile?[17]

Some Poskim[18] rule one is required to perform a Bedika to all areas on the night of the 14th, even if one plans to sell that area to the gentile on the day of the 14th, prior to the 6th hour.[19] Other Poskim[20] rule it is not necessary to perform a Bedika to any area that one plans to sell to a gentile the next day.[21] Practically, the custom is to be lenient in this matter and there is thus no obligation to check the rooms that one will sell/rent to the gentile.[22] One is however to emphasize in the sale document to the gentile that the sale includes all the Chametz in the room/house, including Chametz found in the cracks and crevices.[23] Some Poskim[24] conclude that despite the custom, it is nevertheless proper to suspect for the stringent opinion and sell the Chametz on the 13th, as explained next.

Selling the Chametz on the 13th: Those who desire to be stringent and suspect for the former opinion who requires a Bedika to even sold areas, are to sign on a Mechiras Chametz contract that sells the Chametz on the 13th of Nissan, hence exempting them from a Bedika on the night of the 14th according to all.[25] Today, due to this, some Batei Dinim perform the sale on the 13th. Some Poskim[26] however protest against this custom.[27] Practically, the Chabad custom is to be lenient in this matter, following the ruling of the Tzemach Tzedek, and hence we do not perform a sale on the 13th. This is likewise the custom of many Gedolei Yisrael.[28] Nonetheless, some[29] conclude that it is best to at least sign on the Shtar Harsha on the 13th.

 

 

Maaseh Rav

The Bedika of the Rebbe Rashab on an already cleaned area:[30]


Rav Yaakov Landau related the following incident that occurred to him in the home of the Rebbe Rashab, regarding Bedikas Chametz to precleaned areas: One time the Rebbetzin Shterna Sarah z”l, told me that we need to do a Bedika to the room that was cleaned for use for the Pesach products. This was on the night of Rosh Chodesh Nissan. That room was fully cleaned and “Kashered” and many of the Pesach products were already stored inside it, such as the wine and other items. It was discovered that the walls were not properly cleaned and therefore the Rebbe Rashab instructed that everything be removed and the walls re-cleaned. After this repeated cleaning, the Rebbetzin said that the room needs to have a Bedika done to it. I entered the room of the Rebbe Rashab to receive clarification regarding the necessity for this Bedika after the room was clearly cleaned of all Chametz. The Rebbe Rashab replied: “In general, when people clean a room for Chametz, in majority of cases they forget completely to do a Bedika afterwards. Even if they do check it, it is a very swift check, which is most certainly invalid, as all the items are already in the room. Therefore, the room should have a Bedika performed in it without a blessing the same night that it is cleaned for Pesach.”

 

The Bedika of the Alter Rebbe:[31]

The Alter Rebbe went to Mezritch for the first time in the year 1764 and remained there until a few days before Pesach of 1765. Upon returning home, on the 13th of Nissan, he did not eat due to his preoccupation with the preparations for Bedikas Chametz, assuring that all the Divine intents that he learned in Mezritch regarding the Bedika would be translated into action. The actual Bedika continued throughout the entire night despite the fact that he only had one room in his possession.

 

 

3. Who is obligated to perform the Bedika?

  1. Which homes?

Every Jew, man or woman, who will be living in a home over Pesach, is obligated to clean and it for Chametz and perform a Bedika. Furthermore, even if he will not be living in the home over Pesach, he is obligated to clean and check all of his property for Chametz, unless the property will be sold to other people over Pesach, as explained in Chapter 3 Halachas 12-13-See there! If one does not own a home [see next regarding household members], he is exempt from this Mitzvah.

One who is traveling away for Pesach: One who will be away from home for the entire duration of Pesach is exempt from cleaning/checking his home prior to leaving if he will be performing Mechiras Chametz. Nevertheless, if one will only be arriving to his destination on Erev Pesach [i.e. the 14th of Nissan], then it is proper for him to clean at least one room and perform the Mitzvah of Bedika at home on the night of the 14th, or the night prior to leaving. See Chapter 3 Halacha 12 A-B and Q&A for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. Who in the household does the obligation fall on?[32]

The obligation to check the home for Chametz falls upon the father/master of the home, and not upon any of his [family members and other] dependents.[33] However, in a case that the owner is not at home to do the search, then the obligation falls upon the dependents [even if the father did not directly appoint them to do the search].[34]

If one lives in the house of another Jew does he have to also search for Chametz?[35] One who will be living in another’s home over Pesach, is not required to perform his own individual cleaning and Bedikas Chametz if the owner of the home will anyways be doing so.[36] [This applies even if one purchases and eats his own Chametz in the home.]

Who is responsible to check and nullify the Chametz of orphans?[37] The caretaker of the orphans is obligated to check and nullify the Chametz of the orphans just as he is obligated to do for them all the other Biblical and Rabbinical commands.

 

Q&A

If the dependents have their own money which they use to buy food are they also obligated in the Bedika?[38]

Yes. However, in such a case the dependent receives the same status as one who lives in the house of another Jew, in which case the house owner fulfills the Bedika obligation on behalf of the Jew. 

If the father is not at home, are the dependents obligated to check the house with a blessing?[39]

Yes.

 

If one is living in the house of a gentile, does he have to check the gentile’s house for Chametz?

If the gentile is the owner/master of the home then he is to simply nullify and disown his Chametz, and let the gentile know that it is all his, and he may take it for himself.[40] However, if the Jew has his own room within the home, then certainly he is obligated to check his personal room with a blessing. Although it is seemingly permitted to live in the home of a gentile throughout Pesach even though the gentile will have Chametz in the home, nevertheless, it is best to avoid doing so.[41]

 

Who is responsible for searching for Chametz in the stairs and lounge of an apartment building?[42]

All the residents have an obligation to search their building for Chametz. The building residents should appoint one person to do so and thus fulfill their obligation.

Who is responsible for checking a Yeshiva, or school for Chametz?[43]

The responsibility falls upon the directorship of the institution. If they do not plan to use the premises during Pesach, they can simply include it in the sale to the gentile, and thus avoid the need to clean it out. If, however, it will be made use of during Pesach, then it must be cleaned.

Who is responsible for checking a school dormitory for Chametz?

Each student is to check his room for Chametz prior to leaving, unless the room will not be used during Pesach, and both he and the directorship of the school perform Mechiras Chametz.[44] The remainder of the building is the responsibility of the directorship to clean, as stated in the previous Q&A. Regarding if a student may recite a blessing upon checking for Chametz in his dorm room on the night of the 14th, some Poskim[45] rule a blessing may not be recited.[46] Other Poskim[47] rule a blessing may be recited.[48] Practically, the student may recite a blessing upon searching on the night of the 14th.[49]

 

4. When to perform the Bedika:

  1. The time and date-Immediately upon nightfall of the 14th:

The Bedika is to be performed on the night of the 14th of Nissan.[50] One is to begin the Bedika immediately[51] after nightfall [i.e. Tzeis Hakochavim] of the 14th, [after Davening Maariv, as will be explained].[52]

 

Summary:

The sages instituted that the Bedika is to be done immediately after nightfall of the 14th.

 

Q&A

What does one do if he is at work, or has a Job which requires him to work, past nightfall?[53]

Ideally, one should arrange to be home by nightfall in order for him to do the Bedika himself. However, if this is not possible, then one should appoint a Shliach to do the Bedika as soon as nightfall begins, rather than delay the Bedika until he arrives home.[54]

Appointing one’s wife or kids to do the Bedika in such a situation: One may appoint his wife[55], and children above the age of 13, to begin the Bedika in the above a situation.

Leaving one area unchecked for the husband: Some[56] suggests that one can ask the Shliach to leave out one room from being checked, and not include it in the blessing. In this way, when the owner returns home, he can check that room with a blessing, and hence have the advantage of fulfilling the Mitzvah himself.

 

 

Sparks of Kabala:[57]

The mystical reason for why we begin checking for Chametz on the night of the 14th is because a child below age 13 only has a Yetzer Hara. When he begins his 14th year he now has his Yetzer Tov. [Similarly, on the night of the 14th we are able to properly begin the refinement of our animal soul.]

 

  1. May one choose to perform the Bedika on a night prior to the night of the 14th?[58]

If one desires, he may precede and perform the Bedika prior to the night of the 14th, on any night that he chooses. All the Bedika laws are to be followed, including checking after nightfall with a candle. However, a blessing is not said upon doing a search prior to the night of the 14th.[59] Likewise, he must make sure not to enter any more Chametz into the rooms that he checked. Although one is allowed to precede and check his entire house prior to the night of the 14th, nevertheless, one should leave at least one room unchecked in order so it can be checked on the night of the 14th with a blessing. Practically, even if one checked all of the areas on a night prior to the 14th, and did not leave anything else to be checked, he must nevertheless recheck at least one room on the night of the 14th without a blessing.[60]

 

Practical advice:

Based on the above allowance, one can use the following advice to lessen the burden of checking everything on the night of the 14th:[61] After cleaning an individual item, such as a drawer, shelf, cabinet, fridge, room, and the like, one is to check the item that night using a flash light or room light, and intend to perform the Bedika on it at this time. One is then not required to recheck this item on the night of the 14th. See Halacha 2!

 

 

  1. Checked during daytime:

Lechatchilah, prior to the night of the 14th, one may not perform a Bedika during the daytime, whether he is using sunlight or a candle.[62] If one transgressed and checked during the day before the night of the 14th, then if the area was under direct sunlight [i.e. opposite an open window or open roof-See D!], it must be rechecked at night. This applies even if one made the room dark and checked it with a candle.[63]

  1. One who forgot to check for Chametz on the night of the 14th:

Remembered on Erev Pesach, or on Yom Tov/Chol Hamoed:[64] One who transgressed, or forgot, and did not check his home, or a certain area of his home, for Chametz on the night of the 14th, then he is obligated to check it for Chametz on the day of the 14th, or as soon as he remembers anytime during Pesach, whether day or night. This obligation applies even on Yom Tov and even on the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora; he must search for the Chametz on Yom Tov as soon as he remembers [although any found Chametz is simply to be covered until after Yom Tov, as will be explained].[65] However, on Shabbos one does not check at all [those areas that require light and rather checks immediately after Shabbos].[66] This obligation to check applies even if he already nullified his Chametz before Pesach, and he is thus no longer obligated to Biblically destroy it.[67] [This obligation applies even if one sold his Chametz to a gentile before Pesach.[68]]

Saying a blessing: If one did not check [at all] on the night of the 14th, then before beginning the search on the day of the 14th, one says the blessing of “Al Biur Chametz.”[69] [However, if he already said a blessing and checked on the night of the 14th, and simply forgot to check a certain area, then a blessing is not recited.[70]] Likewise, if he forgot to perform the Bedika on the day of the 14th, then prior to searching upon remembering during Pesach [Yom Tov/Chol Hamoed] he is obligated to say the blessing of “Al Biur Chametz.”[71] This applies even if he already nullified his Chametz before Pesach, and he is thus no longer obligated to Biblically destroy it.[72] [This, however, only applies if one did not sell his Chametz to a gentile through Mechiras Chametz. If, however, one performed Mechiras Chametz, then one is not to say a blessing prior to the search, if it is after the 6th hour on Erev Pesach.[73]]

How to check-sunlight or candle: [Although when checking for Chametz prior to the night of the 14th, one may never check during the daytime, on the day of the 14th and onwards, when must check whenever he remembers, even during the day. The following will discuss if sunlight may be used for this checking.] When checking during the daytime, such as on Erev Pesach [the day of the 14th] he remembered that he did not check a certain area for Chametz, then all areas that are directly opposite sunlight [i.e. the sky], such as areas that are directly opposite an open window[74], or areas that are directly under an open roof[75], may be checked using sunlight.[76] This applies even if the sky is cloudy, and the sun cannot be seen.[77] However, all other areas that are not opposite or under sunlight, must be checked with a candle, just as is done on the night of the 14th.[78]

What to do with the Chametz:[79] If one found Chametz during his search [then if he did not sell his Chametz to a gentile, and it is Chol Hamoed] he is to immediately destroy the Chametz from the world as explained in Chapter 3 Halacha 6B]. [If one sold his Chametz to a gentile before Pesach, as is accustomed today for all Jewry to do through the Rav of their community, then they found Chametz is to be moved with a broom to an area sold to the gentile, as explained in Chapter 3 Halacha 9A.] If one found Chametz on [Shabbos or] Yom Tov, one may not move the Chametz [being that it is Muktzah] and is rather to cover it with a vessel until Yom Tov is over[80], and then immediately destroy it [or if he sold his Chametz, to move it with a broom to the area sold to the gentile].

Nullifying the Chametz:[81] If one is performing the Bedika on the day of the 14th prior to the 6th hour of the day, then after the Bedika, one is to nullify his Chametz.

Forgot to check and it is now after Pesach:[82] One who transgressed, or forgot, and did not check his home, or a certain area of his home, for Chametz, and it is now after Pesach, then [if he did not sell his Chametz to a gentile before Pesach] he needs to search for the Chametz after Pesach [as soon as he remembers].[83] One is to search for the Chametz with a candle, although no blessing is recited prior to the search.[84] Any Chametz that is found is to be destroyed. [Accordingly, a Jew who becomes observant/Baal Teshuvah after Pesach, is to be instructed to search his home for any Chametz that was owned from before the previous Pesach, and have it destroyed.]

 

 

Summary of C-D:

Checking during daytime: Lechatchilah, one may never check during the day, unless it is past the night of the 14th and he did not check, in which case he checks on the day of the 14th. If one transgressed and checked during the day before the night of the 14th, then all areas which may not be checked with sunlight [i.e. all areas in a four-walled roofed room that are not opposite an open window] must be rechecked at night, even if he checked them with a candle in a dark room. However, when checking on the day of the 14th, or on Yom Tov or Chol Hamoed, all areas can be checked with a candle, and all areas that are opposite sunlight [under open roof, opposite open window] may be checked with the sunlight even on a cloudy day.

Forgot to check: One who did not check for Chametz on the night of the 14th must do so when he remembers, whether on Erev Pesach, Yom Tov or Chol Hamoed. On Shabbos, one waits to search until after Shabbos. On Yom Tov, any Chametz that is found is to be covered until after Yom Tov. If one did not sell his Chametz to a gentile, one recites a blessing prior to beginning the search. If one did not perform the search, and it is already after Pesach, the search is to be performed after Pesach without a blessing.

 

5. Preparing ones house for the Bedika:[85]

All rooms which need to be checked need to be swept prior to the Bedika.[86] Every person should warn his family to also sweep under the beds as perhaps some Chametz has rolled under it. After one has swept well in all places, he has to return and check all the places with a candle, in the holes and cracks which require checking.[87]

6. Prohibition of doing work, eating, or studying Torah prior to performing the Bedika:[88]

On the eve of the 14th, it is Rabbinically forbidden to eat a meal [see Q&A], study any Torah[89], or do any of the works forbidden to be done before Mincha and Maariv, beginning from a half hour before nightfall.[90]

Asking one’s friend to remind him:[91] One may begin to learn within a half hour before nightfall if he tells a friend, who is not learning, to remind him when the time of Bedika arrives at nightfall. [However, it does not help to appoint a friend to remind oneself at the time of Bedika to allow one to do mundane matters within a half hour before the Bedika.[92]]

If one has a set Torah Shiur: If one has a set shiur in Shul after davening [Mincha or Maariv], of group learning of Halacha which does not involve pilpul/depth, then the group should not nullify the Shiur [even after nightfall] and are to do the Bedika after the Shiur is over.[93] However, when the lesson involves Pilpul [in depth analysis] it is forbidden even in shul, even if one has a set lesson.[94] [The above only applies by a public shiur, however, a private Shiur that one learns on his own or with a Chavrusa, may not be studied within a half hour prior to nightfall.[95]]

If one began an activity before the time of Bedika, must he stop when nightfall arrives?[96] If one began one of the above-mentioned activities prior to a half hour, and certainly if he started to do it within the half hour, then he is obligated to stop when the Bedika time arrives [at nightfall].[97] [However, if one began one of the above-mentioned activities prior to the half hour period before nightfall, then he does not need to stop when the half hour point arrives, and he may rather continue the activity until nightfall.[98]]

If the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday, may the firstborn eat before Bedikas Chametz?[99] When Pesach falls on Sunday, the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday the 13th, which is Erev Bedikas Chametz. In such a situation, if a Bechor who is fasting has many rooms to check, and it is difficult for him to continue fasting until its conclusion, then he may eat a little prior to performing the Bedika as only an actual meal was forbidden to be eaten. Alternatively, he is to appoint an emissary to perform the Bedika while he eats.

 

Q&A

May one snack within the half hour period before nightfall?

Yes.[100] However, once nightfall has begun, it is forbidden to continue eating even a mere snack.[101]

Definition of snack: One may eat fruits without limit until nightfall.[102] One may eat up to a Kebeitza [55 grams] of bread or Mezonos.[103] One may drink without limit until nightfall.[104]

May someone who was appointed an emissary to do the Bedika, eat prior to doing the Bedika?[105]

It is proper not to do so.[106]

 

 

7. When to Daven Maariv:

One should Daven Maariv before doing the Bedika if a Minyan is now available and it will be difficult to gather a Minyan later on[107], or if one usually Davens with a Minyan, and tonight there is no Minyan available, and he will thus be Davening alone.[108] However, if one normally Davens Maariv without a Minyan, then he is to first perform the Bedika and only then Daven Maariv.[109] [However, the Chabad custom is to always Daven Maariv before the Bedika, in all cases.[110]]

8. Guarding the Chametz starting from the Bedika and onwards:[111]

Prior to the Bedika, one must place all one’s known Chametz in an area that is not accessible to children or rodents.[112] Similarly, any Chametz found during the Bedika is to be guarded, both during and after the Bedika, from being accessible to rats and children.[113]

Not to enter or eat Chametz in the checked rooms without supervision:[114] Once a room has been checked for Chametz, one must be careful to guard that no Chametz enter there, unless it is under strict supervision that no Chametz will escape. Those who are not careful and continue entering and eating Chametz in the already checked rooms without proper guarding and supervision that some of the Chametz does not escape, are doing a mistake and are to stand corrected.

How does one guard the Chametz:[115] One guards the Chametz from mice and children by hiding it in a box, or other area that mice and children cannot take access. Alternatively, one can hang it in the air [on one’s ceiling, above the reach of mice and children]. Alternatively, one can place it by a high area which children cannot reach and place a wide vessel over it [so the mice cannot take from it]. However, a small, narrow vessel is no good being that the mice can overturn it and reveal the Chametz.

If one did not guard the Chametz:[116] If one did not guard the Chametz and noticed that one of the pieces are missing, having been taken by children or mice, then one needs to recheck [his entire house] a second time.[117] If, however, one is unsure if a piece is missing, such as he does not know the amount of pieces that were originally there, then he is not required to research the home.[118] If one hid the Chametz properly and then found it to be missing , or even completely taken, he nevertheless does not need to recheck the previously checked areas.[119]

Feeding Chametz to animals after the Bedika:[120] One who desires to give Chametz to his animals to eat once the Bedika is done, must supervise them until they finish eating. One must supervise that they do not push and drag any of the Chametz to a hidden area. If there is any Chametz left over from what they ate, it must be removed.[121]

 

 

Summary:

Before the Bedika, one needs to guard from rats and children all known Chametz by hiding it in an inaccessible are. Similarly, any Chametz found during the Bedika is to be guarded both during and after the Bedika from being accessible to rats and children. If one did not do so, then if he knows that Chametz is missing from the Chametz, then he must recheck the house for the Chametz.

 

Q&A

What is one to do if a family member or guests ate Chametz in the room after it was checked?

If the person was careful to guard the crumbs and clean up after himself, it is not necessary to perform another Bedika in the room.

 

9. The ten pieces of bread:[122]

It is customary to place [ten[123]] pieces of Chametz throughout the house before doing the Bedika.[124] This custom is to be abided and is considered part of Torah.[125] [Furthermore, some Poskim[126] rule that in today’s times putting out the pieces of bread is required from the letter of the law, in order to be allowed to recite a blessing over the Bedika.[127]]

What type of Chametz should be placed: One should beware to place hard Chametz which does not crumble.[128]

Wrapping the pieces in paper:[129] It is customary in the Rebbe’s household to place ten pieces of hard bread in various places, each wrapped in paper. [One can use masking tape to wrap the Chametz inside.]

Guarded from rats/children: One must be careful to guard the pieces of Chametz found during the search so they are not taken by children or rodents.

 

Q&A

Who should put out the pieces of bread, the person doing the checking or someone else?[130]

Initially, the pieces should not be spread out in the home by the person doing the checking.[131]

 

Should the pieces placed out be less than a kezayis?

Some Poskim[132] rule that the pieces of Chametz should be less than a kezayis.[133]

 

What does one do if he placed out 10 pieces of Chametz and could not find them all?[134]

If the entire home was checked for Chametz and it still could not be found, it suffices to nullify it.

 

If one is doing the Bedika prior to the 14th [i.e. traveling] should the ten pieces be put out?

Some Poskim[135] rule it should not be spread out.[136] However, other Poskim[137] rule they should be placed.

10. What light may one use to check for Chametz?[138]

A single wicked candle: When checking at night the search may only be done using the light of a candle.[139] One may not use the light of a torch to search the Chametz, but rather one is to search with the light of a small single [one wicked] candle.[140] If one transgressed and checked using the light of a torch, he does not fulfill his obligation and must repeat and check using the light of a single wick candle, without a blessing.[141]

The definition of a torch:[142] An oil candle which has two wicks is considered a torch, and thus if one transgressed and used it to check, he must recheck his house. Similarly, if one took two bees wax candles and placed them near each other and checked with them, the Bedika is not valid. Even if one went ahead and braided the two candles into one, or melted them until they became one candle, nevertheless since it contains two wicks it is considered a torch.

The wax:[143] Lechatchilah, a beeswax candle [or paraffin candle[144]] should be used.[145] [Nevertheless, based on Kabala one is to use specifically a beeswax candle, and so is the Chabad custom.[146]] If this is not available, then one may use a candle made of any kosher wax.[147] If this is also not available then [non-kosher fat] Cheilav should be used.[148] If this too is not available then oil should be used. An oil candle should not be used in other circumstances. In all cases, if one did the search using one of the above candles, even if a better candle was available, he has fulfilled his obligation and does not need to repeat the search using a bee’s wax candle.[149]

Using wood:[150] One may not use a lit piece of wood as a candle.[151] This applies even if one has a single piece of strong wood which lights well, such as cane, nevertheless it should not initially be used if one has a bees wax candle available.[152]

 

Summary:

One is not allowed to check with a torch. If one did so, he must repeat the search without a blessing. Lechatchilah a beeswax candle should be used.

 

Q&A

May one use a flash light or a florescent light in the room to do the Bedika?[153]

It is permitted to use a flash light or other form of electric light for the Bedika. Nevertheless, the custom is to use specifically a candle for the Bedika.[154] However, in a situation that the electricity is needed to help one do the Bedika, then one should not refrain from using it together with the candle.[155] Similarly, those areas which one cannot check properly with a flame due to fear of causing fire, then even Lechatchilah a flashlight should be used. If one does not have a flame available, then he may even Lechatchilah use a flashlight and say a blessing over it.[156]

 

 

The Bedika kit:[157]

The custom is to perform the Bedika using a bird’s feather, wooden spoon and bees wax candle. The Chametz that is found is placed into a paper bag. At the end of the Bedika one places the feather, leftovers of the candles, if applicable, and the wooden spoon together in the paper bag. The feather and leftover candle is to be placed inside the spoon, and then wrapped with the paper bag. The handle of the spoon is to remain unwrapped, and extend above the paper bag. One ties the top of the bag around the spoon using a string.

 

11. The blessing:[158]

Before one begins to check for the Chametz one says a blessing just as a blessing is said prior to fulfilling all Rabbinical commands. The blessing is: “Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech Haolam Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Biur Chametz.”[159] The blessing of Shehechiyanu is not recited.[160]

What does one do if he forgot to say the blessing over the Bedika?[161] If one forgot to say a blessing prior to beginning the search, then if he remembers prior to completing the search, and there remains at least one area[162] to check in which there is suspicion that a Kezayis[163] of Chametz may have remained, then one is to say the blessing prior to finishing the search. However, if he already concluded the Bedika, then a blessing may no longer be said.[164] However, the next day, at the time he burns the Chametz, he is to say the blessing without Hashem’s name.[165]

Does an emissary say a blessing: See Halacha 14!

Washing hands prior to doing the Bedika:[166] There are those[167] who are meticulous to wash hands prior to doing the Bedika.[168] [This is not known to be the Chabad custom.]

 

Q&A

If one does not own a home that needs checking, does he say a blessing upon checking his belongings, such as his suitcase or car and the like?[169]

Ø  Example: One is traveling to relatives for Pesach and will be selling his home to a gentile?  A Bochur is traveling home for Pesach? On the night of the 14th, is he to check his belongings with a blessing?

One who does not have a house to check for Chametz is nevertheless obligated to check his belongings, including his car, for Chametz. However, he does not recite a blessing prior to this search, as the main Bedika was only instituted regarding one’s home.

 

When checking two separate buildings, such as two different homes, or a home and an office or store, does one say a separate blessing upon checking in the second building?

No. A separate blessing is not recited as explained in Halacha 11.

Are Yeshiva or seminary students to recite a blessing upon searching their dorm rooms on the night of the 14th?

Some Poskim[170] rule a blessing may not be recited.[171] Other Poskim[172] rule a blessing may be recited.[173] Practically, the student may recite a blessing upon searching on the night of the 14th.[174]

 

Are two roommates to both say the blessing upon checking for Chametz in their particular areas?[175]

Seemingly, it is permitted for each roommate to check his area with a blessing even if they live in the same room, and it is not necessary for them to be Yotzei with a single blessing.

 

 

12. May one talk while doing the Bedika:

After the blessing, before beginning the Bedika:[176] It is forbidden to talk any words between the blessing and the beginning of the search, just as it is forbidden to make an interval between the blessing and the beginning of the performance of any Mitzvah. This applies even against talking of matters relevant to the search, unless one is in a situation that he cannot begin to do the search without talking [about a certain matter relevant to the search]. If one transgressed and talked after saying the blessing, before starting the search, then if he talked of matters that are relevant to the search, even if one could have begun the search without discussing this matter at that time, nevertheless, the blessing does not need to be repeated. However, if one talked of matters not relevant to the mitzvah, then the blessing needs to be repeated.

After starting the Bedika:[177] Once the search has been started, then one may [even] Lechatchilah talk of matters related to the search. However, regarding unrelated matters, [it is proper[178]] Lechatchilah for one not to talk of them [until after saying the bittul that is said after the Bedika[179]].[180] This applies even if they involve words of Torah. If, however, one talked of unrelated matters, he is not required to repeat the blessing.[181]

 

 

Summary:

Between the blessing and the start of the search it is forbidden to talk of any matter, even if it relates to the Bedika, unless one cannot begin the Bedika until it is spoken. Once the Bedika has begun, although one may not talk of unrelated matters, it is permitted to talk of matters that relate to the Bedika.

Q&A

May those helping the father/person perform the Bedika talk during the Bedika?[182]

It is initially proper for them not to talk just as is the law regarding the person himself who said the blessing.

 

If one went to the bathroom during the Bedika may he say Asher Yatzar?[183]

One may say Asher Yatzar after using the bathroom, before finishing the Bedika.

 

During the Bedika may one answer Amen and Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo after a blessing?[184]

If one hears a blessing during the Bedika, he may answer Amen and Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo.

 

During the Bedika may one recite a blessing upon hearing thunder or seeing lightning?[185]

Yes.

 

13. Walking from house to house and room to room during the Bedika:

Between the blessing and start of the search:[186] Between the blessing and the start of the search, one may not go into another house for the purpose of checking, and he is to first search in the house that the blessing was said in. If one switched houses before beginning the search, then it is considered an interval between the blessing and the Mitzvah and one must thus repeat the blessing. [This, however, only applies if one goes into a different house prior to beginning the search, if however, one simply goes to a different room within the same house, then it does not consist of an interval.[187] Nevertheless, initially one is to begin the search in the same room that the blessing as said in and not switch from room to room.[188]]

After beginning the search:[189] After one begins the search, it does not consist of an interval for one to go into a different house to check for Chametz.[190] [However, Lechatchilah, one should not go into another house which do not need to be checked until the conclusion of the Bedika.[191]]

 

 

Q&A

When checking two separate buildings, such as two different homes, or a home and an office or store, does one say a separate blessing upon checking in the second building?[192]

No. A separate blessing is not recited.

 

 

14. Appointing others to help one perform the Bedika:[193]

Appointing others versus doing oneself: A homeowner may appoint another person in his place to perform the Bedika of his home, and have that person say the blessing. Nevertheless, it is proper for the homeowner to search the [entire] house himself rather than appoint others to do so for him.[194] However, if one is unable to check all the rooms himself, then he should [at least] check one room or one corner, and appoint family members to check the remaining areas. [Furthermore, some learn that it is encouraged to merit others [males above the age of 13] to participate in the Mitzvah of Bedika, rather than have the father of the home perform the entire Bedika himself.[195]]

Do the emissaries say a separate blessing? In a case that the emissaries will be doing the search in place of the father/homeowner, and the father/homeowner will not participate at all in the search, then the emissaries say the blessing. [The father/homeowner is not allowed to say the blessing if he will not be participating in the search.[196]] If, however, the emissaries are appointed to help the father in his search, then the emissaries are to be present while the father/homeowner says the blessing over the Bedika. They are to have in mind to be Yotzei with his blessing, and are to answer Amen afterwards. After the blessing, each person checks his designated area, being careful to first check the rooms that are near the house/room where the blessing was said in.[197] The above however is only initially required Lechatchilah. If, however, an interval was made between the blessing of the father/homeowner and the beginning of the search of the emissary, or if the emissary was not present at the time that the blessing was said by the father, nevertheless, the emissaries do not need to say a blessing prior to beginning to search.[198]

Who may be appointed as an emissary/helper?[199] From the letter of the law [one who plans to nullify his Chametz, or already did so[200]] may appoint even a woman, or mature child, to perform the search on his behalf, or to assist him with the search.[201] This refers to a child who has the knowledge and ability to do the search in accordance to all the Halachic requirements. [However, children who have not reached the age of responsibility and knowledge to be trusted to do the Bedika, may not be appointed to check, and their search is invalid even Bedieved.] Nonetheless, despite the above allowance, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to Lechatchilah only appoint men over the age of 13 to perform the Bedika.[202] In a case that the search is Biblically required, such as if one did not nullify his Chametz, did not sell his Chametz, and it is already past the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, then it is forbidden to rely on women and children and their search is invalid.[203]

May an emissary recite the Bittul nullification? The Bittul nullification must be said by the father/homeowner. However, if the father/homeowner is not home and he is having an emissary perform the Bedika on his behalf, then they are likewise to nullify the Chametz at the end of their search. See Halacha 14 for the full details of this matter.

Becoming an emissary without knowledge of the owner/father: If the father/homeowner traveled away for Pesach and did not instruct his household members who remained at home to search the home for Chametz, they are nevertheless obligated to clean and search it for Chametz.[204] They are likewise to nullify the Chametz after their search even though they were not appointed to do so.[205]

 

 

Summary:

Every father/homeowner is to personally perform, or at least take part in the Bedika. One may appoint other male household members who are above the age of 13 to help perform the search. All participants of the search are to be present when the blessing is recited, and are to begin their search within an area in close proximity to the blessing. Initially, it is best not to appoint women, or children, to perform the search.

Q&A

May women today be appointed to help search for the Chametz?

Some Poskim[206] rule that women may be appointed to help search for Chametz, even initially.[207]

May a gentile be appointed as a Shliach to do the Bedika?

No.

 

 

15. Does a shul or Beis Midrash need to be checked for Chametz?[208]

Shuls and Batei Midrashim need to be checked on the night of the 14th with a candle.[209] The Gabbaim of the shul are responsible to search the shul for Chametz. The Gabbaim may say a blessing on their search for Chametz in the Shul and Beis Midrash.[210] The Gabbaim do not have to nullify the Chametz after completing the search.[211] [However, Shuls who provide their own Chametz, such as by Kiddushim, should nullify the Chametz after the search.[212]] If the Gabbai transgressed and did not check the Shul at night of the 14th, then he may Lechatchilah check it on the day of the 14th using sunlight, without a candle, if the Shul has many windows.[213]

 

Summary:

The Gabbai of the shul is responsible to search the shul for Chametz with a blessing on the night of the 14th.

Q&A

Does the Gabbai say a blessing both in the shul and in his home? 

Yes. A blessing is to be said in both areas, whether he first checked the Shul and then his home, or vice versa.[214] Some Poskim[215] however suggest that the Gabbai should have in mind while saying the blessing for searching his house to also include the Shul which he will check later on.

 

 

Should the Gabbai sell the Chametz of the Shul?

The custom is for the Gabbai, or another person appointed by the shul directors, to sell the Chametz of the Shul.[216] This, however, does not exempt one from the obligation of searching the Shul for Chametz.

 

 

16. Bittul Chametz-Nullifying the Chametz:[217]

It is an institution of the sages to nullify all the Chametz which one has in his property which he did not find during the search.[218] The Bittul is to be recited immediately after completing the Bedika. There is a second Bittul that is recited also the next day, after Biur Chametz, as will be explained.[219]

How does one nullify the Chametz:[220] The main aspect of nullification is [done] in ones heart, that one place in his heart that all the Chametz in his property is like non-existent, and is insignificant, and is like dust, and like a matter which has no use of at all. By one concluding the above in his heart he has removed his mind from all the Chametz that is in his property, and it becomes completely disowned, and he no longer transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh.[221] Although the main aspect of nullification is in one’s mind and heart, nevertheless, the Sages instituted for it to be verbalized. One should explicitly say that his Chametz is disowned. It is customary to recite the following Aramaic[222] dialect:[223] “Kol Chamirah Vechamia[224] Deika Berishusi Dilo ChaMiseiy Udilo Biarteiy Udilo Yadana Lei, Livatel Ulihavei Hefker[225] Kiafra Diara[226]/All Chametz and yeast that I posses which I did not find or destroy is nullified and is free like the dust of the earth”

Understanding the Bittul:[227] One must verbally disown the Chametz in a language that he understands.[228] If he said it in a language that he does not understand, then if he does not at all understand the meaning of what he is saying, then the nullification is invalid.[229] Thus, those who do not understand Aramaic are to say the Bittul/Kol Chamira in their language. [They can first say it in Aramaic, and then repeat it in their language.]

Repeating the nullification the next day:[230] It is proper[231] that before the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, one repeat the bittul and nullify once again all the Chametz which he has in his possession.[232] This Bittul is to be said only after performing Biur Chametz to all the Chametz, [and at the very least after burning at least a Kezayis of Chametz[233]].[234] For this reason, the Biur is to be done some time prior to the 6th hour of the day, as the Bittul can no longer be performed once the 6th hour has arrived.[235] The following is the wording of the second nullification:[236]Kol Chamirah Vechamia Deikah Berishusi Dichaziseiy[237] Udilo Chaziseiy Dechamisei Udelo Chamisei Diviartei[238] Udilo Biarteiy Livatel Ulihavei Hefker Kiafra Diara/All the Chametz [and yeast] which I have in my property which I saw or did not see, which I destroyed and which I did not destroy etc….”

Appointing others to nullify the Chametz on one’s behalf:[239] It is disputed if one may appoint another person to nullify one’s Chametz on his behalf. Some Poskim[240] rule one cannot appoint an emissary to nullify the Chametz for him, and rather he must nullify it himself.[241] Other Poskim[242], however, rule that the nullification may be done through an emissary.[243] [The appointee should say “All the Chametz that so-in-so has, is nullified like the…”[244]] Practically, the main Halachic opinion follows the lenient approach, however it is proper Lechatchilah to suspect for the former opinion, [and thus do the nullification oneself, even if one had appointed an emissary to do so for him]. Accordingly, when one is traveling away for Pesach and is leaving family members at home, he may then to do the search and nullify the Chametz when the time comes, and he too should nullify his Chametz when the time of nullification arrives.[245] Furthermore, if one left his household members in his house and forgot to command them to nullify the Chametz after their search, they are nevertheless to do so.[246]

Who is responsible to nullify the Chametz of orphans?[247] The caretaker of orphans is obligated to nullify the Chametz of the orphans just as he is obligated to do for them all the other Biblical and Rabbinical commands.

 

Summary:

Immediately after completing the Bedika, one is to nullify all the Chametz which one has in his property which he did not find during the search. One is to verbalize that he disowns the Chametz, and it is like the dust of the earth. One must verbally disown the Chametz in a language that he understands.

 

Wrapping up the Bedika kit:[248]

The custom is to perform the Bedika using a bird’s feather, wooden spoon and bees wax candle. The Chametz that is found is placed into a paper bag. At the end of the Bedika one places the feather, leftovers of the candles, if applicable, and the wooden spoon together in the paper bag. The feather and leftover candle is to be placed inside the spoon, and then wrapped in a paper bag. The handle of the spoon is to remain uncovered, and extend above the paper bag. One ties the top of the bag around the handle of the spoon using a string. The bag is thrown in the fire the next day by Biur Chametz.

 

17. Biur Chametz-Burning the Chametz on Erev Pesach:

  1. The Mitzvah:[249]

One is obligated to disown/destroy all his Chametz by the start of the 6th hour of Erev Pesach. Prior to the 6th hour of the day, one can free himself from the prohibition of owning Chametz by giving or selling the Chametz to a non-Jew, or by disowning the Chametz and placing in a public area. After the start of the 6th hour, it no longer helps to disown the Chametz in a public area and one must rather destroy the Chametz from the world in a way that no person can get benefit from it. Even prior to the 6th hour, the disowning of the Chametz simply refrains one from transgressing ownership once the 6th hour arrives, however it does not fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz. It is for this reason that we burn the Chametz on Erev Pesach prior to the 6th hour, in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz with at least some part of our Chametz that we own. There are various valid methods of destroying the Chametz, however, initially, the best method to be used is to burn the Chametz until it becomes charcoal, and so is the custom today. This burning process if coined “Biur Chametz.”

  1. When to burn the Chametz?

Night of 14th versus day:[250] The custom is that the Chametz which one finds by the search is not burned immediately that night but is rather hidden away to be burned the next day.[251] Nevertheless, if one wants to destroy the Chametz immediately after the search [at night] in order to avoid the possibility of having children or mice and rodents take from the Chametz, then one may do so.

When during the day:[252] One needs to be careful to destroy the Chametz prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, in order so he can then recite the Bittul prior to the 6th hour.[253]  

 

  1. What does one burn?

One is to burn any Chametz that he found during the Bedika, including the ten pieces of bread [and the vessels used for the Bedika, such as the spoon and candle[254]].[255] If one did not find any Chametz during his search, then it is proper for him to burn the vessels used for Bedika.[256] Some have the custom to use the Aravos which were hit on Hoshanah Rabba as fuel to burn the Chametz.[257]

  1. Repeating the Bittul-Kol Chamira:

After performing Biur Chametz, prior to the 6th hour, it is proper that one repeat the bittul, and nullify once again all the Chametz which he has in his possession. The Bittul cannot be performed once the 6th hour has arrived. The Bittul should only be said after the Chametz is burned, or at the very least after burning one Kezayis. The following is the wording of the second nullification: “Kol Chamirah Vechamia Deikah Berishusi Dichaziseiy Udilo Chaziseiy Dechamisei Udelo Chamisei Diviartei Udilo Biarteiy Livatel Ulihavei Hefker Kiafra Diara/All the Chametz [and yeast] which I have in my property which I saw or did not see, which I destroyed and which I did not destroy etc….”

 

  1. Receiving benefit from the Chametz fire:

When one is burning the Chametz prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, one may benefit from the burning Chametz and use its heat to cook with. Nevertheless, the custom is to burn it separately [from ones cooking oven, and not benefit from it] even when burning it prior to the 6th hour.[258] However, when one burns his Chametz after the 6th hour, it is forbidden to receive benefit from it.[259]

 

 

Summary:

Prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, one is to burn all his leftover Chametz, ten pieces of bread and Bedika set. Immediately after the Chametz is properly burnt, one is to recite the Bittul, prior to the 6th hour.

Q&A on Biur Chametz

When before the 6th hour is one to burn the Chametz?[260]

One may burn it anytime prior to the 6th hour, so long as the family has finished eating Chametz, in order so the Bittul can be said.

 

If one does not own any Chametz, is he to buy Chametz in order for him to be able to burn it before the 6th hour?[261]

There is no obligation to do so, although one who desires to be stringent upon himself may do so, although he may not rule this way for others.

 

Should one destroy the Chametz himself rather than appoint someone else to do it for him?[262]

Yes. It is best for the owner of the Chametz to burn it than to have someone else do so for him.[263]

 

Where should the Chametz be burned; in a public area or in one’s property?[264]

Some say that the Chametz should be burned in one’s property, or in a public area but in a vessel that belongs to oneself.[265] In such a case, however, one must verify that all the Chametz is burned, as explained above.

 

What material should one use to fuel the flame to burn the Chametz?

Some Poskim[266] rule that one should use wood to burn the Chametz just as is the law regarding Noser. Other Poskim[267], however, argue on their ruling.

 

May one pour flammable fluids onto the Chametz to help it burn better?

Some Poskim[268] suggest that one should not pour lighter fluids onto the Chametz, as it renders the Chametz inedible for a dog before it is burned, and one thus loses the ability to fulfill with it the Mitzvah of Tashbisu, to burn the Chametz.

 

Which hand should one use to throw the Chametz in the fire?[269]

Some write that one should throw the Chametz into the fire with his right arm, as is the case by all mitzvahs which should be done with ones right.

 

Must one make sure that all the Chametz he threw into the fire gets burned?[270]

Before the 6th hour: If the Chametz is being burnt prior to the 6th hour in a public area, then it is not necessary to make sure that all the Chametz is burned, as in any event it is considered disowned, however the custom is to do so.[271] At the very least, one is to verify that one Kezayis is burnt in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tashbisu.[272] If, however, it is being burnt in a private area, such as the open garage of a private building, then one must verify that all the Chametz is burned.

After the 6th hour: When burning the Chametz past the 6th hour, one must make sure that all the Chametz has been burned, whether one is burning it in a public or private area. Therefore, one must remain by the fire there until all the Chametz is burnt, as many times if the flame is not stoked it will not penetrate and burn all of the Chametz.

 

Q&A on nullifying the Chametz

If one destroys his Chametz early, while his family is still eating, when is the second nullification to be said?[273]

There is no use in saying it while his family is still eating Chametz. Rather, it is to be said after the time that Issur Chametz has arrived.

 

Q&A on discarding the Chametz

May one discard his Chametz trash into a garbage bin, if it will remain there after the 6th hour on Erev Pesach?

See Chapter 2 Halacha 8 in Q&A!

 

Q&A on benefiting from the burning Chametz

May one barbecue hotdogs or marshmallows over the flame used to burn the Chametz?

The custom is not to do so even when burning the Chametz prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach. When burning Chametz after the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, it is forbidden to do so from the letter of the law.

 

 

Yehi Ratzon-Burning the spiritual Chametz:[274]

During the burning of the Chametz, and recital of Kol Chamira, it is customary to recite a prayer discussing the spiritual destruction of the side of evil, represented in the Chametz.

 

_______________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 431:3 “They decreed that one must search after the Chametz in the holes and hidden areas, if it is common to use these areas throughout the year, and to check and remove any Chametz found within his entire property.”

[2] See there that all areas which one remembers entering Chametz into, even once, or that it is common to enter while eating, require checking.

[3] Admur 431:5 that the Takana for Bedika is on the night of the 14th; 433:7 that one can check it any night without a blessing, even prior to the 14th; 433:5-6 that the Bedika is invalid during the day and is only valid at night; 433:38 that all areas that require Bedika are to be swept clean before the Bedika; Accordingly, after taking into account all the above rulings we conclude that all cleaned areas must be checked for Chametz at night with a candle.

[4] Admur 433:39 that sweeping does not suffice and 433:6 that checking by day does not suffice; Michaber 433:11; Rama 433:11 that all areas must be cleaned before the Bedika; M”A 433:20 “Some are accustomed after the cleaning to only do a Bedika to some of the rooms, this is improper”; M”B 433:45 [however in Shaar Hatziyon 432:12 he rules differently]; Directive of Rebbe Rashab to Rav Yaakov Landau; Sefer Hakashrus 6:10 footnote 38; Nitei Gavriel p. 135; 136; 161, brought also in Piskeiy Teshuvos 433:8

[5] Directive of Rebbe Rashab to Rav Yaakov Landau; Hiskashrus Pesach; Sefer Hakashrus 6:10 footnote 38; Nitei Gavriel p. 135; 136; 161, brought also in Piskeiy Teshuvos 433:8

[6] Piskeiy Teshuvah 432:2 in name of Eimek Halacha 143, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 432:12 that today that we thoroughly clean all the areas before the night of the 14th they are exempt from Bedika; Shaareiy Teshuvah end of 433 “Today the masses are lenient to not to properly check the home within every area, as it was already properly cleaned beforehand; Chochmas Shlomo 433:11 “If one cleaned the area at least three days before the night of the 14th, he is not required to do a Bedika at night to the area as it has a Chazaka that it is free of Chametz, and is no different than an area in which one never entered Chametz into to begin with”; Nitei Gavriel Pesach 1:76

[7] Daas Torah 433

[8] Rebbe Rashab ibid; Nitei Gavriel p. 135; 136; 161 writes that if possible one should search all areas at night with a candle, even those areas which already have been cleaned, and they thus are to be checked before they are covered with paper and the like. Thus, it seems that he learned that one should suspect for the view that the Takana to check at night applies to all items, even those previously cleaned. [However, earlier on page 78 he contradicts himself and rules that if one has already cleaned all areas before Bedika then he must from the letter of the law place out the ten pieces of bread. Vetzaruch Iyun] Piskeiy Teshuvos 433:8 records this opinion; Sefer Hakashrus ibid writes that when cleaning the kitchen closets, one must remember to check it with a candle, and that it is unfathomable that the area which most has Chametz will not be checked as is required; So I received from several Rabbanei Anash, that even cleaned areas must be checked.

[9] Admur 433:7

[10] Directive of Rebbe Rashab to Rav Yaakov Landau, in story ibid; So I received from several Rabbanei Anash, that they themselves are accustomed to do so in order to lessen the burden of needing to recheck everything on the night of the 14th. [Heard from Rav S.Z. Labkowski as well as many other Rabbanim that so they do in their own home.]

[11] Admur 433:7

[12] Admur ibid

[13] Admur ibid

[14] Chayeh Adam 119:10; Kitzur SHU”A 111:3

[15] Nitei Gavriel 18:8 footnote 14 and in Volume 3 Teshuvah 1

[16] Nitei Gavriel ibid

[17] See correspondence between the Tzemach Tzedek O.C. 47 and Divrei Nechemia 35 [printed in Hosafos Shulchan Aruch Admur Page 1372-1376]; M”B 436:32; Kaf Hachaim 436:53; Nitei Gavriel Vol. 1 27:1 [p. 146]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 436:3

The correspondence of the Tzemach Tzedek with the Divrei Nechemiah: The Divrei Nechemiah addressed the above question to the Tzemach Tzedek. In his letter he brings the opinions of the Chayeh Adam and other Acharonim who rule that it has to be checked, and thus asks why Admur writes in the Siddur that the sale should be done on the 14th, as then one becomes obligated to check, and rather the sale should be done on the 13th. He states various reasons to explain why even if sold on 14th no checking is required the night before, as since he plans to sell the room on the 14th, it’s as if he will destroy all the Chametz on the 14th and thus no checking is required. There is no worry of him forgetting to do the sale, as he certainly will not come to forget to sell the known Chametz, and this will remind him to also sell the unknown Chametz that is in the room. However, he gives counterarguments, and ends indecisively, not wanting to be lenient against the great Acharonim. The Tzemach Tzedek in his response writes that he agrees with the logic of the Divrei Nechemiah, against the Chayeh Adam, as well he adds that the Torah only obligates one to destroy Chametz in his property and thus since he will not be owning the area after the 6th hour, why should there be an obligation to check it the night before, if even Biblically he is not obligated to destroy the Chametz from it. The Takana of checking for Chametz only applies to those areas that one may not own Chametz in when Pesach enters, and thus property that will be sold does not need to be checked. [To note that seemingly there is a clear proof for the ruling and reasoning of the Tzemach Tzedek from 436:21 where Admur rules that when selling one’s home to a gentile, if the gentile will acquire the Chametz before the 6th hour of Erev Pesach, then he does not need to check for it, even though that it will belong to him by the time of Bedika.] The Divrei Nechemiah responded to the Tzemach Tzedeks reply with a list of questions and rebuttals on the reasons the Tzemach Tzedek used to defend not needing to check these rooms on the night of the 13th.

[18] Implication of P”M 436 M”Z 7 “The house that he lived in on the night of the 14th seemingly must be checked [even though he will be returning it to the gentile the next morning]”, Chayeh Adam 119:8; Makor Chaim 436:4; Divrei Nechemiah 35 in his question to the Tzemach Tzedek leans to be stringent [brought in Hosafos Shulchan Aruch Admur Page 1372-1376]; Kitzur SHU”A 111:6; Halef Lecha Shlomo 392; Avnei Tzedek 53; Devar Moshe Tinyana 98:22; Techeiles Mordechai 121

If one will be leaving his home before the night of the 14th: Nitei Gavriel 27:4 writes that if one will be leaving his house before the 14th, then according to all there is no need to check the house before leaving if he plans to sell it to a gentile. Vetzaruch Iyun why all agree in this case, as according to the Makor Chaim, there is still suspicion that one may not find a gentile to sell it to, and thus it makes no difference when the person leaves the house.

[19] The reason: Being that the sale will only take place the next day, it ends up that on the night of Bedikas Chametz the rooms still belong to the Jew. Therefore, one is obligated to check the rooms that will be sold the next day to make sure that there is no Chametz in them. [Makor Chaim ibid; Chayeh Adam ibid; See Divrei Nechemia ibid] Alternatively, the reason why we require it to be checked is because we suspect that perhaps one will not find a gentile to sell it to. [Makor Chaim ibid]

[20] Tzemach Tzedek 47; Chasam Sofer O.C. 131; Binyan Olam 20; Ashel Avraham Butchach 433 and in Mahadurah Tinyana; Shaareiy Tzedek 75; Zecher Yehosef 143; Divrei Chen 45; Beir Yaakov 436:19; Orchos Rabbeinu 2:69 that so directed the Chazon Ish

[21] The reason: As the obligation of Bedika was only established towards one’s property, and anything that one will not be owned by Pesach is not considered one’s property on the night of the 14th. [Tzemach Tzedek ibid] As since one will not transgress Baal Yiraeh on the Chametz sold, therefore he does not need to check for it. [Chasam Sofer] Alternatively, the sale itself fulfills the Mitzvah of Tashbisu. This is no different than the Chametz one may save to eat and burn on the day of the 14th. [Binyan Olam ibid, brought in M”B and Kaf Hachaim ibid] We do not suspect that the Jew will forget to sell it is because the gentile who will benefit from the deal will remind him, as well as that every time the person sees the room, it reminds him that he must sell it. [Tzemach Tzedek ibid]

[22] Tzemach Tzedek ibid “So is the widespread custom”; Divrei Nechemia ibid that custom is to be lenient; Misgeres Hashulchan on Kitzur SHU”A 111:6 “People are not careful in this”; Ashel Avraham of Butchach ibid; Daas Kedoshim 433:3; Sdei Chemed Mareches Chametz Umatzah 5:4; Or Yisrael 436:3; Madanei Shmuel 111:13; Kinyan Torah 3:53; 6:26; Nitei Gavriel 27:1 footnote 4; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[23] M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid; This wording is included in the Shtar of the Alter Rebbe in his Shulchan Aruch “And included in all the above is the sale of the pieces of Chametz that are found in all these areas.” So was also included even more specifically in the Shtar Mechira of the Rebbe to the Rav.

[24] M”B ibid “Although one is not to protest against those who are lenient, nevertheless, one who sells on the 13th is doing the better act”; Kaf Hachaim ibid “It is best…”; Nitei Gavriel ibid

[25] M”B ibid “Although one is not to protest against those who are lenient, nevertheless, one who sells on the 13th is doing the better act”; Kaf Hachaim ibid “It is best…”; Nitei Gavriel ibid

[26] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:220; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 20

[27] The reason: As by doing such a sale one enters his entire Bedika into question, as if his entire home and all Chametz is already sold to the gentile on the 13th, how can he check for Chametz with a blessing on the 14th, and seemingly his blessing is in vain. [ibid]

[28] Kinyan Torah ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[29] Divrei Nechemia ibid; Kinyan Torah ibid; See also Tzemach Tzedek ibid “And in addition majority of the people sell their Chametz through the power of attorney do so on the 13th, and certainly he is not suspected to forget to sell it to the gentile.”

[30] Yagdil Torah N.Y. 52 p. 150

[31] Haggadah of Rebbe; Sefer Hasichos 1938 Chag Hapesach

[32] Admur 432:8; 436:3

[33] The reason: The reason for [why the dependents are not obligated when the father is around] is because the Chametz in the home belongs [only to the father/owner of the house and] not at all to any of the dependents. [Admur 432:8]

[34] The reason: When the father is not around, the dependents are obligated to clean and search the home not because they will transgress an owning prohibition, but rather Kol Yisrael Areivim. Meaning, that since the homeowner was obligated to search for Chametz all the rooms which are required to be searched [as explained in chapter 433] therefore, those who remain in his home are obligated to exempt him from his obligation, as all Jews are guarantors for each other. [Admur 436:3]

[35] Admur 436:20

[36] The reason: If one will be moving in with someone else, and that someone else is the owner of the house, and that owner will check for and destroy the Chametz himself [and thus he will not be able to do a Bedika for Chametz], nevertheless, since the owner will also search and destroy the Chametz which he [the guest/boarder] used in that house from when he arrived there until Pesach, therefore, this owner is considered to be his [the guests] emissary to check and destroy his Chametz. Now, since the rule is that the emissary of a person is like himself, therefore it is considered as if he himself has destroyed his Chametz, [and he has thus fulfilled the decree of the sages to search for and destroy the Chametz of at least one home, no matter what the situation]. [Admur ibid]

[37] Admur 434:16

[38] See 436:20

[39] Although they are not obligated to search the house due to of Baal Yiraeh, and are only obligated to search it because of Kol Yisrael Areivim, in order to fulfill the fathers obligation of the search, nevertheless seemingly a blessing is said being that we consider the household members to be the emissaries of the father, as zachin liadam shelo bifanav. Therefore, a blessing is said, just like when any emissary is appointed to do the search. 

[40] See Admur 436:20

[41] From the letter of the law it is permitted to do so, as one does not own the Chametz anymore [as explained in Admur 436:20] and in such a great case of Hefker to the gentile, there is not even a Rabbinical obligation to clean the home [as explained in Admur ibid]. Furthermore, although even the Chametz of a gentile must be placed behind a Mechitza lest he come to eat it [Admur 440:5], this is only required in one’s own home, when the gentile is not there. However, when living in a gentile’s home, in presence of the gentile, we do not suspect that one will eat from his Chametz unless one is eating with him the same table. [See Admur 440:3-4] Nonetheless, this is certainly not an ideal situation, and hence one should do all in his power to make other arrangements for Pesach.

[42] Piskeiy Teshuvos 433:3

[43] See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287; Moadim Uzmanim 3:287; Chovas Hadar end of Sefer; Piskeiy Teshuvos 437:3

[44] The reason: It is debated amongst today’s Poskim as to who is responsible for cleaning the dorm rooms for Chametz, and if it’s similar to a rental or not. Some say it is the responsibility of the student, as he pays tuition to stay there. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 437:3] Others say it is the responsibility of the directorship, as they own the place and have the right to move students from one room to another, and it is hence not a true rental. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287; Moadim Uzmanim 3:287; Chovas Hadar end of Sefer] Accordingly, the room may not be left unchecked unless both the student and directorship include it in their sale contract in order to cover all opinions.

[45] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287; Moadim Uzmanim 3:287; Chovas Hadar end of Sefer; Piskeiy Teshuvos 437:3

[46] The reason: As the students do not own their dorm rooms at all, not even as a form of rental, being the directorship have the right to move students from one room to another, and it is hence not a true rental. Accordingly, the checking obligation falls upon the institution and not the individual students who are merely considered like members of the household of the institution. Thus, only one blessing may be recited upon checking the entire dorm, and not one blessing per student or per room. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287; Moadim Uzmanim 3:287; Chovas Hadar end of Sefer]

[47] Piskeiy Teshuvos 437:3 in name of Chazon Ish; Implication of Admur 436:20 that a guest who eats his own Chametz is considered to have his own individual obligation to check for Chametz, and is not viewed as a household member or dependent [brought in 432:8] who does not own the Chametz and does not have an individual obligation. Now, Yeshiva students pay tuition and hence have in truth purchased their meals. Accordingly, there is no reason to not consider the Chametz as theirs, and therefore they may choose to recite a blessing upon making the search.

[48] The reason: As the rooms are considered owned by the students, being they pay tuition for room and board. [ibid]

[49] As so is implied from Admur ibid

[50] Admur 431:5

The reason it is done on the night of the 14th versus the day: From the letter of the law it would have been proper to set the time for the search for the day of the 14th, at the beginning of the 6th hour, in order so that by the end of the 6th hour everyone’s search is finished, and they can then burn their Chametz at the beginning of the 7th hour, as is Biblically required. However, since during the day, majority of people are not found in their houses and are rather out at work in the marketplace and streets, and when the 6th hour arrives it is very likely that they will forget the obligation to search [their homes], therefore, the Sages instituted the time for checking at the night of the 14th, as at night all people are found in their homes. [Admur ibid]

[51] Admur 431:6 “The sages instituted that immediately at nightfall/Tzeis Hakochavim, when there is still some daylight around, one must begin to check.” Gra; Taz; Peri Chadash

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is no Rabbinical obligation to check immediately at night, and rather the time of checking is throughout the entire night. [Magen Avraham 431:8; Michaber 431:2; Tur; See M”B 431:1] Nevertheless, even in their opinion, one should check immediately at night since he may come to forget to do so if he pushes it off. [See M”B 431:1 and 431:10. See also 431:6 and Biur Halacha there and M“B 431:11] The difference in Halachic ramifications between the two opinions is that according to those which hold that the time begins immediately at night one may not eat at all or do anything at all once the night begins, even if he appoints a person to remind him. However, according to those who hold that the time for Bedika is throughout the entire night, then one may eat a little at night before Bedika, and may even eat a full meal, if he appoints a person to remind him. [See Piskeiy Teshuvah 431] Another difference is regarding if one needs to stop learning by nightfall if one began learning in a permitted way.

Opinion of M”B: Regarding the view of the M”B, in 431:1 he writes that one must only check at the beginning of the night because he may come to forget. On the other hand, in 431:14 he writes that the main mitzvah is to check at the beginning of the night. It seems from here that the M“B rules like Admur.]

[52] Admur 431:5

The reason it is done after nightfall: Ideally, it would have been proper to institute and set the time of the Bedika to be done immediately upon ones arriving home [after work], towards the evening [of the 14th], as at that point the person is free from any activity [and thus will remember to check]. When a person is at home [and allowed to push off the Bedika from being done immediately] there is suspicion that perhaps he will eat and drink, or sleep, or do work, or learn Torah if he is a Torah scholar, and due to this he will come to forget the obligation to search. Nevertheless, this was not instituted, as one is required to check for Chametz in the holes and cracks, which is not possible to do without a candle, as the verse states “At that time I will search Jerusalem with candles etc…”, and from this verse the sages supported the fact that the light of a candle is good to be used for searching Chametz. Now, being that a candle does not shine well at day but rather at night, therefore the sages delayed the time of checking until the time that the candle shines, which is at nightfall/Tzeis Hakochavim. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions-Do Bedika by Bein Hashmashos: Some Poskim write that it should be done “not literally at the night of the 14th but close to the entrance of the night of the 14th” [Magen Avraham in 431:1 and 5] This means that one is to begin checking by Bein Hashmashos, prior to nightfall. [M”A 431:5; Peri Megadim ibid in 2nd explanation; Beir Heiytiv 431 brings that one is to check from before nightfall, when there is still light. The Mishneh Berura brings the Raavad who also supports this opinion on the basis of the wording “one is to check on the light of the 14th”, although the Mishneh Berurah himself holds one is to check from nightfall. The Gra would do the Bedika before nighttime and then stop in order to daven Maariv.]

Chabad custom: The Rebbe Rayatz would do the Bedika between Mincha and Maariv, thus implying that it was done at Bein Hashmashos, before night. [Shaarei Halacha Uminhag 2:191] Practically though, our custom is to always Daven Maariv by nightfall and only then do the Bedika.

[53] Piskeiy Teshuvos 431:5

[54] M”A 431:5 rules that when one needs to daven Maariv by nightfall, such as it will be difficult to gather a Minyan later on, then one is to appoint a Shliach to already begin the Bedika at the time of his prayer; Vetzaruch Iyun as to why Admur omitted this ruling of the M”A ibid; Furthermore, in 470:7 Admur rules that when the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday the 13th, which is Erev Bedikas Chametz, then a Bechor may choose to eat a little prior to performing the Bedika or alternatively appoint an emissary to perform the Bedika while he eats. From here it seems that in a time of need one may choose to delay the Bedika. Vetzaruch Iyun!

The reason: Although by delaying the Bedika there is an advantage in that one will be doing the Mitzvah himself, nevertheless, by doing so he has nullified the Takana of the sages to do the Bedika immediately upon nightfall, which is of greater importance than him doing the Bedika himself, being that doing a Mitzvah oneself over a Shliach is a mere Hiddur and not an actual obligation. [Seemingly however this reason would only be in accordance to those Poskim who hold that the Mitzvah of Bedika is immediately upon nightfall, as explained above. However according to the dissenting opinion, one can simply appoint a Shomer to remind him to do the Bedika himself later on. However, see the next reason.] Alternatively, even if one were to be allowed to initially check later on, nevertheless, one should appoint a messenger to check now as it is better to do a Mitzvah earlier with less hiddur than to delay it even if it will be with greater Hiddur. [Admur 25:4]

[55] Aruch Hashulchan 437:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:214

The reason: Although we rule that one is not initially to appoint a woman to perform the Bedika. [432:10] Nevertheless, the Poskim write that today the women do search properly, unlike back in the time of the Shulchan Aruch. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid] Furthermore, perhaps it is better in this situation to appoint one’s wife to do the Bedika, rather than delay it until he comes home, as the avoiding of appointing women is not required from the letter of the law, while doing the Bedika immediately is required.

[56] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:214; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[57] Shalah Hakadosh Bo

[58] Admur 433:7

[59] The reason: As this search is not being done on the main time that was instituted by the Sages, as the Sages instituted for the search to be done on the night of the 14th. [436:1]

[60] Background-Other opinions: Even if one checked all of the areas on a night prior to the 14th, and did not leave over anything to be checked, one must nevertheless recheck at least one room [with a blessing] on the night of the 14th.  The reason for this is because since on this night the Bedika obligation begins for all Jews which have not yet checked their homes, therefore in order to not differentiate a Jew from the rest of Klal Yisrael, the obligation also applies for those that have already checked. However, there are opinions who argue that one does not need to recheck anything being that he has already checked according to Halacha all of his property with a candle at night. [The main Halacha is like the former opinion and] one [thus] must recheck at least one room on the night of the 14th, [however] one should [also] suspect for the latter opinion and thus when rechecking it he should do so without saying the blessing. [Admur ibid]

If the ten pieces of bread are distributed: Seemingly, if another person places out pieces of bread to be looked for, as is the custom, then one may say a blessing upon searching for them. See Q&A below

[61] Directive of Rebbe Rashab to Rav Yaakov Landau, in story ibid; So I received from several Rabbanei Anash, that they themselves are accustomed to do so in order to lessen the burden of needing to recheck everything on the night of the 14th. [Heard from Rav S.Z. Labkowski as well as many other Rabbanim that so they do in their own home.]

[62] Admur 433:5 “One may never Lechatchilah check during the day prior to the 14th even those areas that are directly opposite sunlight, such as an achsadra. Rather one is to check them on the night of the 14th with a candle, and even if he wants to precede and check them on the day of the 13th using sunlight, he is not allowed to do so.”

The reason: The reason for this is because the sages obligated the search to be done specifically at night when people are found in their homes, and thus if one were to check during the day he is nullifying the sages decree. [Admur ibid]

[63] Admur 433:5-6

Background and explanation: If one went ahead and checked during the day on the 13th, or another time of the year [prior to the 13th], then those areas that are allowed to be checked with sunlight on the day of the 14th [as explained in C] , such as an achsadra, do not have to be rechecked at night and one has fulfilled his obligation, if one was careful not to enter Chametz anymore into those areas. [Admur 433:5] However, [an area which on the day of the 14th sunlight may not be used for checking, such as by] a four walled roofed room [by areas not directly opposite a window, then], if one transgressed and checked them with a candle on the day of the 13th [or on a previous day], then he must recheck the area at night, being that candle light does not shine well during the day. This applies even to a dark room [such as that it has no windows to the outside, or that all of its windows are shuttered closed and is thus completely dark to the point] that its darkness is the same by day and night, nevertheless one needs to repeat the search on the night of the 14th, as the shine of a candle during the day even in a dark room is not the same as it shines during the night. [Admur 433:6] 

[64] Admur 433:1 and 435:1 regarding the 14th; 435:2-3 regarding the rest of Pesach

[65] Admur 435:2-3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to search at all for the Chametz on Yom Tov, and should rather wait to do so at night. [Opinion in M”B 435:3]

[66] Admur 435:3

The reason: The reason for this is because one needs to check with candle light, and on Shabbos it is forbidden to carry around a candle. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one remembered on Shabbos then one should search for the Chametz on Shabbos, and he may have a gentile carry a candle for him into the rooms that need to be checked. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 444:1]

Areas that have sunlight or electricity: Those areas which may be checked with sunlight, as well as those areas that have electric lights that are on, should be checked on Shabbos, as soon as one remembers. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 444:1]

[67] The reason: Although since we suspect for coming to eat it, ideally once Pesach has arrived we should specifically not allow one to search for Chametz even if he did not do so beforehand, due to concern that he may find Chametz and eat it. Nevertheless, we require him to search, as during the time that one is searching for the Chametz we do not suspect that one will forget and come to eat it, as his entire purpose in searching for it is to destroy from the world, so how will one forget about the prohibition and come to eat it. [Admur 435:2]

[68] Piskeiy Teshuvos 435; As it is forbidden to allow even a gentiles Chametz to remain openly visible in one’s home, lest one accidently come to eat it. See Chapter 5 Halacha 5!

[69] Admur 435:1

[70] Admur 446:1-2

[71] Vetzaruch Iyun if one did not remember to check until the last day of Yom Tov, and thus must do the search on Yom Tov, if a blessing should be said before the search, even though the burning of the found Chametz will only be done after Yom Tov.

If one forgot to check only one area: Whenever one checked his home before Pesach and simply forgot to check one area, then if it is a room in which one commonly eats Chametz in, and it was not cleaned at all before Pesach, and there is thus a chance that it contains a Kezayis of Chametz, then a blessing may be said if one did not sell his Chametz before Pesach. [See Admur 432:5; 446:3]

[72] Admur 435:2

The reason: The reason for why the blessing is required is because nevertheless [even after nullifying the Chametz] one still remains Rabbinically obligated to check and search after it and destroy it completely from the world in order to prevent him from finding Chametz on Pesach and forgetting and coming to eat it. [Admur ibid] Now, although we never say a blessing when the reason for why we need to destroy a food is due to suspicion that one may come to eat it, nevertheless here a blessing is said as there is a Rabbinical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh and Tashbisu on a Kezayis of Chametz or more even if it was nullified, and thus one is required to destroy the Chametz in it of itself and not just because one may come to eat, (although the reason for why the sages decreed that there is a Rabbinical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh is because one may come to eat it.)] [See Admur 435:4; 446:1-3; Kuntrus Acharon 1]

[73] Piskeiy Teshuvos 435:1; Pashut, as the Chametz belongs to a gentile and there is no such Mitzvah to destroy his Chametz. Nonetheless, one is still to search for the Chametz in order to have it placed behind a Mechitza.

[74] Admur 433:4

Areas opposite a closed glass window: A glass window is considered an interval between the sky and the area of the room, and hence areas opposite a glass window, or glass sunroof cannot be checked with sunlight. [Admur 433:3 regarding sunroof and 433:4 regarding window] However, some suggest that our windows today are very clear and hence one may check using sunlight in areas that opposite a clear glass window. [Daas Torah 433; Piskeiy Teshuvah 433]

A three-walled room: A room which has only three walls, even if it is roofed, [and the area of the fourth wall is open to the sun outside], may be checked even Lechatchilah using sunlight [on the day of the 14th, if he forgot to do so the night before] being that it has a lot of sunlight in the room. This type of room is called an Achsadra. One may use the sunlight to check even on a cloudy day. [Admur 433:2]

A room with many windows: A room which has many open windows, and thus has much light, as is common in Shuls, then if one transgressed and did not check the shul on the night of the 14th, it may be entirely checked on the day of the 14th using sunlight, as its considered like an “Achsadra” which may be checked with sunlight. [Admur 433:37]

[75] Admur 433:3

[76] Admur 435:1

[77] Admur 433:3 regarding under an open roof; Admur 433:4 regarding opposite a window

[78] Admur 433:1, 3

The reason: As the light of a candle is good for checking and searching in hidden places and holes and cracks [Admur 433:1] while the sunlight that enters the room is [minute as] it only enters through the windows and holes of the room. [Admur 433:2]

[79] Admur 435:3

[80] The reason: In order so the Chametz be hidden from ones sight and he thereby not come to eat from it. [Admur ibid]

[81] Admur 435:1

[82] Admur 435:4

[83] The reason: The reason one must search and destroy all Chametz found even after Pesach is because any Chametz which was owned during Pesach is prohibited in benefit, as explained in chapter 448, [and thus we require one to check and search for it] as we suspect that if one were not to check and search for it in order to destroy it, then perhaps he will find it on its own [without searching for it] and he may forget and come to eat it. [Admur ibid]

[84] The reason: The reason for this is because how can one bless G-d for commanding him to destroy Chametz if he is now eating Chametz. Although one is Rabbinically commanded and obligated to destroy this Chametz that was owned over Pesach this is only in order to prevent him from coming to stumble upon a transgression of eating the Chametz. Meaning, one does not transgress on this Chametz any owning prohibition of Baal Yiraeh, not even a Rabbinical prohibition. Thus, one does not say a blessing on this destruction of the Chametz, just like no blessing is said when one kills birds which have been trampled [and are treifas] even though they are forbidden to be owned because one may come to eat them, as explained in Yorah Deah chapter 57. [Admur ibid]

[85] Admur 433:38

[86] The reason: The reason for sweeping is because without sweeping there remains much dust [on the floor], and one is thus not able to check well. [Admur ibid]

[87] Admur 433:39

The reason: The reason for requiring checking even after sweeping is because perhaps there is some Chametz there, being that the sweeping does not help at all for whatever is inside the holes and cracks. [Admur ibid]

[88] Admur 431:5

[89] The reason: One may not [begin to] study even one chapter [of Mishna] within the half hour, even if he could finish the chapter prior to nightfall, as there is suspicion that perhaps due to his concentration/iyun in his learning, he will forget about the Bedika obligation, and will thus continue learning. Alternatively, we suspect that perhaps he will come to a novel concept while learning [which he did not think of learning originally] and will spend time researching this new topic until a certain time past nightfall, while there is still some daylight left [for him to be able to learn with, and will thus end up not fulfilling the obligation to check ones home immediately upon nightfall]. [Admur ibid]

[90] The reason one may not do these actions: Due to worry that if one does not begin the checking immediately upon coming home he may come to forget to check.

The reason the prohibition begins a half hour before: From the time that one usually comes home, until the time of the checking by nightfall, is approximately half an hour [before nightfall]. [Admur ibid] Thus, the Sages established to avoid the above actions beginning from that time.

When checking past the 14th: If one forgot to check for Chametz on the night of the 14th, and then remembered on the day of the 14th, then it is forbidden for him to do any of the above-mentioned items until he performs the Bedika. [Admur ibid] If, however one only remembered past the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, then it is a Biblical/Rabbinical command to immediately search and destroy the Chametz due to the owning prohibition.

[91] Admur 431:11

[92] Admur Kuntrus Acharon 431:2

[93] Admur 431:9

The reason: As it is possible for them to check afterwards, and the mitzvah of Bedika will not be completely nullified [by them delaying it, as opposed to if they skip their learning lesson, in order to do the Bedika, that the entire lesson will be nullified]. There is no suspicion that by allowing them to learn their lesson they will perhaps continue on in their learning and they will forget about the Bedika obligation, as in any event they must go home to sleep, as certainly they will not sleep in the shul, and when each one of them will come to his home, he will remember the Bedika obligation. [Admur ibid]

[94] Admur 431:10

The reason: The reason for this is because there is suspicion that perhaps one will learn in such depth of pilpul to the point that his mind will be so involved in the pilpul that he will forget the Bedika obligation even upon him returning home. [Admur ibid]

[95] Pashut from Admur ibid; M”A 431; Beir Heiytiv 431:4; Mishneh Berurah 431:7

[96] Admur 431:6; Rama 431:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one began to learn while still day then one does not need to stop. [Michaber 431:2] Some explain this to mean that if he began learning beheter, then he does not have to stop, just as is the law by the reading of Shema, while if he began learning after the time, Bi’issur, then he does need to stop according to all being that Bedikas Chametz is Biblical so long as bittul was not yet done. [M”B 431:10]

[97] The reason: As although one will check after he completes the activity, nevertheless he is still nullifying the institution of the sages, which instituted to check immediately at nightfall when there is still some daylight around. [Admur ibid; M”B 431:10]

[98] M”B 431:12; Implication of Admur 431:6

[99] Admur 470:7; M”A 470:4

[100] M”B 431:6

[101] Based on Admur 431:6

Ruling of Admur: From Admur ibid it is implied that once nightfall begins it becomes completely forbidden to do anything, even to eat a mere snack, as the obligation is to check immediately upon nightfall. However, Tzaruch Iyun from 470:7 where Admur rules regarding a Thursday Taanis Bechoros, that he may be lenient and eat prior to the Bedika, as only a meal was forbidden to eat beforehand.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may snack before doing the Bedika, even after nightfall. [M”B 431:6]

[102] M”B 431:6

[103] M”B ibid; Peri Megadim 431 A”A 4

[104] Piskeiy Teshuvos 431:6

[105] Piskeiy Teshuvos 431:7

[106] One should be stringent, although from the letter of the law it is allowed, being that it is not the obligation of the emissary to do the Bedika.

[107] Admur 431:8 If there are ten people that desire to daven Maariv at its proper time, which is at nightfall, then they should daven immediately at nightfall, and then go to their homes to check the Chametz.”

The reason: The reason for this is because if they first go home to check their Chametz it will be troublesome to re-gather the Minyan to daven afterwards, and the Mitzvah of Davening with a congregation will thus be completely nullified due to having first done the Bedika. However, if they daven Maariv before they do the Bedika, the Bedika will not be nullified, [and thus it is better to first daven]. [Admur ibid]

Appointing a Shliach: Some Poskim rule that one should appoint someone else in his place to check while he Davens, as then he fulfills both of the Mitzvahs. [M”A 431:5; M”B 431:8; Chayeh Adam] Admur omits this ruling. Perhaps this is because it is a greater Mitzvah to check oneself than to appoint a shliach.

[108] Admur 431:7 If throughout the year one normally Davens Maariv with a minyan before nightfall, and missed the Minyan on the eve of the 14th, then he should daven immediately upon nightfall, and do the Bedika only after Davening.” Seemingly, the same would apply after nightfall as well

The reason: The reason for this is because since he is not accustomed to Daven Maariv at home, we suspect that [if we were to have him first do the Bedika] then due to his involvement and pursuit of checking for Chametz, he may come to [completely] forget about saying the Shema and praying. [Admur ibid]

Appointing a Shliach: See previous footnote

[109] Admur 431:6

The reason: Although the reading of Shema of night is a Biblical positive command and is also a constant obligation which applies every single day, twice a day, and the Mitzvah which is more common is to be given precedence, nevertheless, one needs to proceed the checking of Chametz to saying the Shema and Prayer. The reason for this is because the checking for Chametz is a passing mitzvah. As if one does not do the Bedika immediately, then he has transgressed a Rabbinical command, however the reading of the Shema, even though it’s a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to read it at the beginning of the night, nevertheless, he is not considered to be transgressing the institution of the sages [by delaying its reading] unless one delays reading it until after midnight, as explained in chapter 235. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one should always daven Maariv first, as Maariv is Tadir. [Chok Yaakov 431, brought in Kuntrus Acharon 431; Admur ibid explains why Tadir does not overrule in this case.] Some Poskim rule there is no Rabbinical obligation to check immediately at night, [and it is thus not really understood according to them why one should first do the Bedika rather than daven, which is more Tadir] [M”B 431:1. See also Halacha 4A]

[110] Hayom Yom 14th Nissan; Letter of Rebbe printed in Shaarei Halacha Uminhag 2:191; Vetzaruch Iyun from the reply of the Rebbe ibid that the Rebbe Rayatz would do the Bedika between Mincha and Maariv, and would then daven Maariv after the Bedika [beyechidus].

The reason: As our custom is to take a long time to do the Bedika. Therefore, we make sure to daven Maariv beforehand [as otherwise we may come to forget to pray, or because we will only get a chance to pray after it is already midnight]. [Rebbe ibid]

[111] Admur 434:1-3

[112] Admur 434:2 “All the leftover Chametz which has remained at home for the sake of eating that night and the next day [or for the sake of burning or selling to the gentile], needs to be hidden/guarded from before one begins the Bedika.”

The reason: As if one were to not to do so, then there is suspicion that at the time of the Bedika itself, while one has checked one corner and has went to check another corner, perhaps he will see with his own eyes a mouse or a rodent taking some Chametz from the Chametz which he set apart to be eaten, and he will then need to recheck the corner which he had already checked for Chametz, as perhaps the rat dragged the Chametz that he took to the already checked corner. [Admur 434:2]

[113] Admur 434:1-2

The reason: When one checks for Chametz on the night of the 14th and removes it from the holes, cracks, hidden areas, and corners, and then gathers it all and leaves it in one area, [then since] he may not immediately destroy it and rather he must wait [to destroy] it until tomorrow at the end of the 5th hour as will be explained in chapter 445, he therefore needs to be careful with the Chametz and guard it from any of it being dragged away by children or mice. As if he knows that some Chametz was dragged away he will then need to recheck his house [as will be explained below]. [Admur 434:1] For the reason mentioned above, when one goes to search from corner to corner he needs to guard well the Chametz that he found in the previous corner and thus take it with him, or to hide it properly as will be explained. [Admur 434:2] The reason for why the sages required him to guard the Chametz [in all the above cases and did not allow one to take a chance of having it dragged away and then recheck the house for it] is because the sages suspected that one may forget to recheck, or perhaps he is not an expert in Halacha and does not know that he needs to recheck his house [for the missing Chametz]. Thus, the sages placed [an obligation] on every man to guard well the Chametz which he found by the search from being taken by children and mice. [Admur 434:1]

[114] Admur 434:3 “The world is only careful to hide the Chametz which they find during the search, however other Chametz [which they set aside to eat] they carry around everywhere within the already checked rooms, and are not careful to guard it from having some of it dragged away. Those who do so are not acting proper, and they need to be taught and warned against doing so.”

[115] Admur 434:1

[116] Admur 434:1

[117] The reason: As we suspect that perhaps the Chametz was placed in one of the holes of the house. [Admur ibid]

[118] Admur 434:5

The reason: If one transgressed and did not hide the Chametz at all, but rather left it spread around inside the house and was not careful to guard it then if he does not know how much Chametz was there, and it is thus possible that really some of the pieces were dragged away by children and rats, nevertheless, he does not need to recheck the rooms for Chametz. The reason for this is because since he is not certain that any Chametz is missing, we therefore do not require him to recheck the already checked areas do to the mere suspicion that perhaps a large piece of the Chametz was dragged by the mice and was placed in one of the holes of the house. As if we would require him to recheck his house because of this suspicion, then there is no end to the suspicions [and the Bedika will never be able to finish], as then we should also suspect that the [unknown] Chametz which still remains in the room of one Jew who has not yet finished the search, and most probably contains Chametz, may have been dragged by rats into another Jews house which has already finished the entire search, as it is impossible for all Jews to finish their Bedika at the same time. Thus, he would then have to recheck the entire house, and this then would repeat itself endlessly. [Admur ibid]

[119] Admur 434:4

The reason: As certainly a person has taken it from there and not children and mice. [Admur ibid]

[120] Admur 433:27

[121] The reason: It may not be left there for them to continue to eat, as perhaps the Chametz will remain there until after Pesach begins. Even if one plans to visit the area prior to the 6th hour to check if there is any remnant of Chametz that needs to be burnt, nevertheless, we suspect that perhaps when the time of burning the Chametz will arrive he will forget about the Chametz that he placed in front of them being that it will not enter his mind to suspect that there is any leftover Chametz. Therefore, at the time that he gives them the Chametz, he must not move from the area until they finish eating and he is then to remove the leftovers and hide them [to be burnt for the next day] as then he will certainly not forget to burn it, just like he does not forget to burn the rest of his known Chametz. [Admur ibid]

[122] Admur 432:11; Siddur Admur; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Hamatzos chapter 4

[123] Siddur Admur, based on Kabalah; The Rebbe notes that it’s source is in Mishnas Chassidim and Siddur Haarizal.

[124] The reason: This is done in order for the searcher to find it when he does the Bedika. [Siddur Admur] As perhaps one will not find any Chametz by his search, and thus we place Chametz out in order to guarantee that at least some Chametz will be found. [Admur ibid; 1st opinion in Rama 432:2] Doing so, however, is not at all required from the letter of the law, being that even if one were to not find any Chametz during his search, nevertheless, his blessing is not considered to have been said in vain. The reason for this is because the mitzvah is [not to find Chametz, but to] check for the Chametz and to search for it as perhaps one will find some of it [however] if one were not to find any Chametz, it does not make a difference, and he has already fulfilled the Mitzvah properly. [Rama 432:2 brings a dispute on this matter. Thus, we see that Admur rules like the lenient opinion] Alternatively, the reason is because the blessing is going also on all the known Chametz that he will certainly destroy tomorrow, thus even if he does not find Chametz now it is not a blessing in vain. [Taz 432:2] Alternatively, the reason is 1) In order so one be able to say “dechamiseiy” in the next day’s Bittul; 2) In order so one not forget the command of burning the Chametz. 3) In order so one not be obligated to destroy the spoon used for the search. [Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim of Rebbe on Haggadah]

[125] Admur ibid “Nevertheless, being that this is the custom [it should be done, as] a custom of the Jewish people is itself considered to be part of Torah.”

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that being that this is not necessary for the blessing, therefore one should not put them out, as we suspect that perhaps the searcher will not find it. [Taz 432:4]

[126] Piskeiy Teshuvah 432:2 in name of Eimek Halacha 143, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 432:12; Nitei Gavriel Pesach 1:78

[127] The reason: As it is customary today to already clean all the places of the home prior to the 14th, and it is hence similar to the ruling brought in 3B, that if one cleaned and checked his entire home before the 14th, he does not say a blessing upon rechecking.

[128] The reason: As [otherwise] perhaps some of it will crumble off [after it is found] and will remain in one’s house during Pesach. [Admur ibid]

[129] Haggadah Shel Pesach of Rebbe; Sefer Haminhagim

[130] Chok Yaakov 432:14; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 432:4 for other opinions on this subject

[131] The reason: As by doing so, the pieces are not considered to be included in the required search being that he knows their location.

[132] Shaareiy Teshuvah 432:3

[133] The reason: In order so that if he does not find one of the pieces, he will not be required to go back and check. [ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun as Admur rules that one needs to search for even less than a kezayis of Chametz and in 434 and 439 regarding Chametz getting lost in one’s home, no differentiation is made if the Chametz is a kezayis or less than a kezayis. As well being that one checked his entire home, he should not be required to search for it again even if the Chametz is more than a kezayis, as we rule in 439:6-7.

[134] See Admur 439:6 and previous footnote.

[135] Minchas Yitzchak 8:35

[136] The reason: As anyways there is no suspicion of a blessing in vain, and one may come to forget to find the pieces. [ibid]

[137] Kinyan Torah 2:82

[138] Admur 433:1-6

[139] Admur 433:1

Moon light: Using the moon light does not suffice, as the light of a candle is good for checking and searching in hidden places, holes and cracks, [as opposed to moonlight]. [Admur ibid]

[140] Admur 433:8-9

The reason: The reason for this is because the light of a torch cannot enter into holes and cracks. Furthermore, one is afraid of it burning down the house and will have his mind/heart troubled by this fear during the search which will prevent him from searching properly. [Admur 433:8]

[141] Admur 433:9

Background and other opinions: If one transgressed and checked using the light of a torch, then he has not fulfilled his obligation and must repeat and check using the light of a single candle. However there is an opinion [Taz 433:3] who rules that one does not need to repeat the search.[141] Practically [we rule like the former opinion that the search must be repeated, but] one should suspect for the latter opinion and not repeat the blessing when he rechecks the house. [Admur ibid]

[142] Admur 433:10

[143] Admur 433:8

[144] Chemically made wax candles may be used even Lechatchilah, being that the entire restriction against other waxes is due to worry that a non-kosher substance will drip on the vessels, which is not applicable by chemically made candles.

[145] The deficiency of other material candles: Lechatchilah one should be careful to only use a bees wax candle to search, and not candles made of non-kosher fat, as [while checking with it] one [will] fear that it will drip onto ones kosher food utensils [and will thus not be able to check properly]. As well, candles made of Kosher fat should also not be used being that one fears of it dripping on his dairy utensils. An oil lamp should also not be used because one fears of it dripping onto one’s clothing and staining them, as well as being that one cannot enter well such a lamp into holes and cracks. [Admur ibid]

[146] Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim of Rebbe on Haggadah; Piskeiy Teshuvah 433:2

[147] The reason: By pressing times, such as when one does not have any bees wax candles to use, it is considered like bedieved, and he may even lechatchilah use other candles to check. Nevertheless, if one is able to check with kosher fat candles, he should do so rather then check with a non-kosher candle, as when checking with kosher fat he only fears from dripping on milky vessels as opposed to meat vessels while when checking with non-kosher candles one fears from it dripping on any food vessel. [Admur ibid]

[148] The reason: If one does not have kosher candles, then non-kosher wax candles should be used rather than oil, being that an oil candle cannot be entered well into holes and cracks, as can wax candles. [Admur ibid]

[149] Admur ibid; Kuntrus Acharon 433:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that an oil lamp has the same status as a torch, and if it was used then one must recheck. [M”A 433:15, brought in Kuntrus Acharon 433:2] However, all the other Acharonim argue on this, and so seems logical being that this is not mentioned in the Talmud, as well as that by a Rabbinical dispute we always are lenient, and especially here where the majority of opinions are lenient, not to mention that according to the Taz one never has to recheck even when a torch was used. [Kuntrus Acharon 433:2]

[150] Admur 433:11

[151] The reason: Being that wood does not light well when it is a single piece, and if there are two pieces of wood, even if they are very thin, then it’s considered a torch. [Admur ibid]

[152] The reason: As since it gives off a bad smell as well as that sparks fly off from it when it is lit, there is suspicion that because of this one will not be able to check well. [Admur ibid]

[153]  See Sheivet Halevy 1:136; Piskeiy Teshuvos 431:2

[154] There is no true reason to differentiate between light of a candle and electricity, as the main thing is to search for the Chametz properly, which both a candle and electricity accomplish. Nevertheless, the Jewish people remain loyal to the original tradition of using a candle rather than electricity. The Chabad custom is to use a beeswax candle.

[155] Sheivet Halevy ibid; as the main thing is to check properly. [ibid]

[156]  Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[157] Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim of Rebbe on Haggadah

[158] Admur 432:1

[159] The reason for saying “destroying the Chametz”: Although one does not destroy the Chametz at the time of the blessing, nevertheless, since after the search for the Chametz one immediately nullifies and disowns any Chametz that has remained in his house which was not found during the search, therefore “destroying” is mentioned. As this nullification is Halachically considered to be destroying any Chametz that he does not know about, which he did not find during the search. In addition, the Chametz that he does know about, is hidden away for the next day, until the 5th hour and is then destroyed from the world. [Now being that], on [these two forms of destroying Chametz which are] the nullification done on the night of the 14th and the destroying done on the day of the 14th we do not say any blessing upon doing them, as they are included in the blessing said over the checking of the Chametz, which is the beginning stage of the destruction of the Chametz, therefore [when we check for the Chametz] we say the blessing of “On destroying the Chametz.” [Admur ibid]

The reason why we do not [also] say “Al Bedikas Chametz”: A blessing is not said over the Bedika itself, as the Bedika is not the purpose of the mitzvah, as [regarding Chametz which he has found] one who has searched for his Chametz but did not destroy the Chametz that he found during the Bedika, has not done anything [of the mitzvah]. So too, if one did not nullify his Chametz after the Bedika he still has not [Rabbinically] completed the mitzvah of destroying the Chametz. [Admur 432:2]

Interchanged an “AL” for an “L”: See Admur 432:4

[160] Admur 432:3

The reason: The reason for why we do not say the blessing of Shehechiyanu before the search, even though that the Bedika is a Mitzvah that is dependent on a specific time [meaning is renewed every year and thus should have a Shehechiyanu said over it], is because this Mitzvah [of searching] is done [as a preparation] for the holiday, as one cleans his home [from Chametz] and destroys the Chametz from it for the need of the holiday. Therefore, it is exempted with the blessing of Shehechiyanu said on the night Kiddush of the holiday. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the blessing of Shehechiyanu is to be said at the time of the Bedika. [Raavad; Baal Haitur] Some Poskim conclude that due to this opinion, one should have with him a new fruit when doing the Bedika, in order for him to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu according to all. [Abudarham; Kaf Hachaim 432; Piskeiy Teshuvos 432]

[161] Admur 432:5

[162] Whether a full room, corner or even hole. [Admur ibid]

[163] Admur ibid in parentheses; See Admur 446:3; Kuntrus Acharon 446:1

[164] The reason: However if he remembers only after the Bedika was completely finished, then he may not say the blessing, as all blessings must be said prior to doing the mitzvah that they are going on, as once the mitzvah has already been done how can one say a blessing of “That you commanded us to do the following command”, if he will not be doing the command, being that he already did it. [Admur ibid]

[165] The reason and other opinions in Admur:: There is an opinion who says that one is to say the blessing the next day at the end of the 5th hour, upon burning the Chametz which he found during the search, as this burning is the main aspect of destroying the Chametz, and ideally is fit to have a blessing said over it, and we only do not say the blessing because we have already exempted it with the blessing of Al Biur Chametz that was said by the Bedika. Thus, in a case that no blessing was said by the Bedika, he needs to say a blessing by the time of the burning of the Chametz. Practically, one should suspect for the above opinion [brought in previous footnote] to say the blessing [at the time of the burning] but without mentioning G-d’s name. [Admur ibid]

[166] Admur 432:12 in name of Maharshal

[167]

[168] The reason it is allowed: Now although one who washes his hands for a mitzvah of which the sages did not institute that one’s hands are to be washed is considered to be of haughty spirit, nevertheless since the search for Chametz is coming for purification of the Holiday, as explained above [regarding why we do not say Shehechiyanu by the Bedika] it is therefore considered important enough of a Mitzvah to have one cleanse himself prior to doing it. [Admur ibid]

[169] Piskeiy Teshuvos 433:7

[170] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287; Moadim Uzmanim 3:287; Chovas Hadar end of Sefer; Piskeiy Teshuvos 437:3

[171] The reason: As the students do not own their dorm rooms at all, not even as a form of rental, being the directorship have the right to move students from one room to another, and it is hence not a true rental. Accordingly, the checking obligation falls upon the institution and not the individual students who are merely considered like members of the household of the institution. Thus, only one blessing may be recited upon checking the entire dorm, and not one blessing per student or per room. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287; Moadim Uzmanim 3:287; Chovas Hadar end of Sefer]

[172] Piskeiy Teshuvos 437:3 in name of Chazon Ish; Implication of Admur 436:20 that a guest who eats his own Chametz is considered to have his own individual obligation to check for Chametz, and is not viewed as a household member or dependent [brought in 432:8] who does not own the Chametz and does not have an individual obligation. Now, Yeshiva students pay tuition and hence have in truth purchased their meals. Accordingly, there is no reason to not consider the Chametz as theirs, and therefore they may choose to recite a blessing upon making the search.

[173] The reason: As the rooms are considered owned by the students, being they pay tuition for room and board. [ibid]

[174] As so is implied from Admur ibid

[175] Implication of Admur 436:20 that a guest who eats his own Chametz is considered to have his own individual obligation to check for Chametz, and is not viewed as a household member or dependent [brought in 432:8] who does not own the Chametz and does not have an individual obligation. Accordingly, there is no reason to require one blessing to be said on behalf of them both, and they may both choose to recite a blessing upon making the search.

[176] 432:6

[177] Admur 432:7

[178] Siddur; Michaber 432:1 “Tov to…”. However, from Admur ibid it is implied that it is Lechatchilah forbidden to talk of them. Vetzaruch Iyun

[179] Peri Migadim 432 M”Z 3

Ruling of Admur in Siddur: Vetzaruch Iyun from Siddur who writes “It is proper not to talk of unrelated matters for as long as one is still searching” No mention here is made of the Bittul.

[180] The reason and other opinions: As there are opinions who say that even one who talks after having begun the mitzvah, its nevertheless considered an interval, and [according to them] one thus needs to repeat the blessing prior to finishing the mitzvah. The reason for this opinion is because this differs from when one talks in the Sukkah during a meal, in which [according to all] one is not required to repeat the blessing of Leishev BaSukkah, [and may even initially talk]. By a Sukkah, the person is not obligated to stay in the Sukkah after having talked, and rather if he wants he can decide to no longer eat and no longer stay in the Sukkah. However, by Bedikas Chametz, being that [when he talks before checking all the areas] he has to continue the Bedika after the talking, being that one is obligated in checking all the areas in which one enters Chametz, and thus for this reason if one would have forgotten to say the blessing before the Bedika, he would have to say it if he did not yet finish the Bedika. Therefore, also now he is obligated to repeat the blessing if he talked after saying the first blessing [prior to finishing the Bedika]. According to this opinion] the same applies for all Mitzvos that are an obligation on a person and he may thus not exempt himself from it [that if he talked in the middle that he must repeat the blessing] [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: The Michaber 432:1 says that the reason that one should not talk is in order so he properly pay attention to the areas that are required to be checked, and thus not forget to check any of the required areas. This follows the opinion of the Rosh in Pesachim that there is no prohibition of making a talking interval after beginning the Bedika, but nevertheless one should not talk so he be able to focus. Admur however does not mention this reason at all, and rather states that talking should be avoided due consisting of an interval.

[181] Admur ibid

The reason: If one went ahead and talked of unrelated matters before finishing the Bedika, nevertheless, he does not need to repeat the blessing, as [since] he has already begun doing the mitzvah of which the blessing was said on [talking is no longer considered to be an interval, similar to the law by a Sukkah. Thus, bedieved we do not rule like the latter opinion mentioned above, as safek brachos lihakel.] [Admur ibid]

[182] Implication of Admur 432:8 who rules that lechatchilah they should not enter another room before beginning to check; Piskeiy Teshuvos 432

[183] Piskeiy Teshuvos 432:1

[184] Piskeiy Teshuvos 432:1

[185] Piskeiy Teshuvos 432:1

[186] Admur 432:8; See Admur 8:22

[187] Admur 8:22; 432:8 “from house to house”; Ruling of Tosafos and Rav Nissim Gaon that if the rooms are in the same house and one had in mind to do the switch, then it is not considered to be an interval

Background: In 8:22 Admur rules that if one goes from room to room inside the same house after saying the blessing, before doing the mitzvah, then he does not need to say another blessing. Likewise, in 432:8 Admur only mentions that leaving from inside to outside is a problem, and not leaving from room to room. However, Tzaruch Iyun why Admur in 432:7 mentions “After one has begun the search the going from room to room and from house to house to check for Chametz is not considered an interval to require one to repeat the blessing” if he holds that it never constitutes an interval within the same house.

[188] Ruling of Admur in the Siddur: In the Siddur, Admur writes that “… and they should be careful to first check [the room that they are in or] the room near the room in which they heard the blessing and not go right away and check another room” thus implying that one may only first check in rooms near the room of the blessing, and not in other rooms in the house, as even going from room to room constitutes an interval before one has begun the Bedika. This seemingly follows the ruling of the Ran that it is always considered an interval, even if the person had intention to switch rooms. [See Miluim of Rav Raskin in back of Siddur] Vetzaruch Iyun if one can make such an inference from the Siddur as neither the Shaar Hakolel, Ketzos Hashulchan in Piskeiy Hassidur, or Rebbe in his commentary on the Haggadah mention any difference of the ruling in the Siddur versus that of the Shulchan Aruch, and on the contrary, state it is the same ruling.

[189] Admur 432:7

[190] The reason: After one has begun the search the going from room to room and from house to house to check for Chametz is not considered an interval to require one to repeat the blessing, just like when one talks after having already begun a mitzvah is not considered to have made an interval. [Admur ibid]

[191] This follows the same ruling that Lechatchilah one should not talk of unrelated matters during the Bedika.

[192] Admur 432:8; Michaber 432:2; M”B 432:7 in name of Maamar Mordechai and Chok Yosef; Kaf Hachayim 432:22

Background:

It is evident from Admur ibid that only one blessing needs to be said whether he checks his house and then his store or his store and then his house, as Bedieved we do not consider changing houses in middle of the bedika to be an interval. [Kaf Hachaim 432:22 based on Admur] Likewise, the Michaber explicitly rules that “With one blessing one may search many houses”.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that another blessing is to be said before performing the Bedika of a store which is a building separate than one’s house. [Chayeh Adam brought in M”B ibid] Seemingly, his reasoning is because it is considered two separate Mitzvos. The M”B ibid negates this opinion of the Chayeh Adam.

[193] Admur 432:8

[194] The reason: As is the rule by all mitzvahs that it is a greater mitzvah for one to do the mitzvah himself then for him to appoint an emissary to do it for him. [Admur ibid]

[195] P”M 432 A”A 5; Letter of Rebbe in Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:191 that so is possible implication from Siddur who writes “And he should place his household near him to hear the blessing and then have each one check in his area” thus possibly implying that one should merit others to also do the Mitzvah of the Bedika with him and he does not need to do all the Bedika on his own, as despite that in general we say “Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mibishlucho”, since he will be doing some of the checking, he has already fulfilled this mitzvah of “Yoser Bo…”. [Rebbe ibid]

[196] Piskeiy Teshuvos 432

[197] The reason: As the going from one house to another before beginning a mitzvah after saying its blessing is considered an interval [as explained above]. [Admur ibid]

[198] Admur 432:9; Vetzaruch Iyun regarding an older child who makes their own money and purchases and eats their own Chametz at home, if they may repeat the blessing on their own behalf if it was missed.

The reason: The reason for this is because the emissaries are not obligated in doing the Bedika, and are only doing it in order to exempt the father/homeowner from his search obligation. Since in a case that the father/homeowner himself were to check the areas which the emissaries were appointed to check he would not have to repeat the blessing, being that he had already said the blessing once before, therefore, similarly the emissaries which are doing the mission of their father are not obligated to say the blessing. Nevertheless, Lechatchilah they should not do the Bedika without hearing the father/homeowner say the blessing, as otherwise they are doing a Mitzvah without having a blessing precede their mitzvah. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the emissaries have to say the blessing if they made an interval or did not hear it said. [Chok Yaakov, brought in M”B 432:11] Some Poskim thus conclude that if the emissary did not hear the blessing, or made an interval, he should not be sent to search, unless it is a case of need that one cannot do the entire search alone. [M”B ibid]

[199] Admur 432:10; 437:5

[200] Admur 437:6

[201] The reason: As all [Jews] are considered kosher to search for Chametz, and are to be believed to have done so. We do not suspect that they will perhaps do the search lazily and thus not search well and will then lie to [the father/homeowner] saying that they searched properly. The reason for this leniency is because the Bedika is only a Rabbinical command, being the Biblically it suffices alone for one to nullify the Chametz. Therefore, the sages believed even the above people, and said that they are to be trusted to do the search. Now, although whenever there is a Chazakah of Issur we do not believe a child to say that he has fixed the issur as we say in Yorah Deah chapter 127, and thus so too here the child should not be believed being that there is a chazakah of Issur in the house being that it was filled with Chametz throughout the year, nevertheless, the child is believed to say that he destroyed the Chametz, being that it was in his ability to do so, and whenever a child has the ability to take care of the Issur, he is believed as explained in Yorah Deah 127 and 120. [Admur ibid]

[202] The reason: The reason for this is because doing the Bedika in accordance to all its Halachic requirements takes a lot of trouble/work, and thus there is room to suspect that perhaps [women, slaves, and children] will be lazy and not search well. [Admur ibid]

[203] Admur 437:6

The reason: Women here are not trusted to perform the Bedika. This is despite the fact that they are believed by Torah prohibitions when they have the ability to avoid the prohibition from being transgressed, such as a Nidah is believed to say that she immersed being that she has the ability to immerse, and similarly she is believed on the slaughtering [of an animal] and on the removal of its forbidden parts, to say that she slaughtered and removed the forbidden parts as is required by Jewish law. In these cases she is believed because she had the ability to slaughter and remove the forbidden parts as is required by Jewish law. Nevertheless, here she is not believed to say that she checked [the home] in accordance to the laws applicable to the search, even though she had the ability to check according to Jewish law. The reason for this is because checking in accordance to all the laws is a great burden, and women are [more] lazy [by nature], and they only check a little and say that they checked well. Therefore, the sages did not believe them [to do the search], unless the search is only Rabbinically required to be done. [Admur 437:6]

[204] Admur 436:3 “If one left his household members in his house and forgot to command them to search the home, they are nevertheless obligated to search even those rooms which they have not entered any Chametz into after the owner of the house left. Even those rooms which they will not enter at all on Pesach at all, and thus one will not come to eat from any leftover Chametz there that is in them, must be checked.”

The reason: The reason for this is because since the homeowner was obligated to search for Chametz all the rooms which are required to be searched [as explained in chapter 433] therefore those who remain in his home are obligated to exempt him from his obligation, as all Jews are guarantors for each other. [Admur ibid]

[205] Admur 436:4 “After the household members search for Chametz it is proper for them to also nullify the Chametz, and they should be warned to do so, despite the fact that their nullification does not help much being that the Chametz is not theirs and the owner never commanded them to nullify it, and did not make them emissaries [to nullify it or] to check for it.”

The reason: The reason why their nullification does not help much even though one can assume that the owner desires that those remaining in his home nullify the Chametz for him, is because [in order for an emissary to be able to nullify] the owner must explicitly reveal that he wants it to be done, and if not then the nullification of the emissary is meaningless, as explained in chapter 434. The reason for why they should nullify it despite the fact that their nullification does not help much  is because we suspect that perhaps the owner will forget to nullify the Chametz in the place that he is in, as since he is not dealing with searching for Chametz and destroying it, it is probable that he will come to forget to do so, and then the Chametz will not be nullified at all. It is thus better for the household members to nullify the Chametz then it not being nullified at all. It is therefore proper to warn them to nullify it in order to remove oneself from doubt.  [Admur 436:4]

[206] Aruch Hashulchan 437:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:214

[207] The reason: Although we rule that one is not initially to appoint women to perform the Bedika. [432:10] Nevertheless the Poskim write that today the women do search properly, unlike back in the time of the Shulchan Aruch. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[208] Admur 433:36

[209] The Gabbaim are not careful to search it at night, rather they suffice with sweeping it well during the day. However, this is not proper and they need to be warned against this and to check [the areas at night] as the sages instituted. [Admur ibid]

The reason: This applies even if there is no food ever eaten in the shul being that children enter Chametz into them throughout the year. [Admur ibid; Certainly it applies if Kiddushim and Farbrengens are eaten there throughout the year.]

[210] Admur ibid; M”B 433

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule a blessing should not be said. [Aruch Hashulchan 433]

[211] Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 433; Mishneh Berurah 433; See however Peri Megadim 433 A”A 19

The reason: Being that they cannot nullify and disown Chametz which does not belong to them, as a person cannot disown something that is not his. [Admur ibid]

[212] Pashut! The above exemption was only because they don’t own the children’s Chametz.

[213] Admur 433:37

The reason: Being that it is common to have many windows in a shul, and they thus have a lot of light. [Admur ibid]

[214] Implication of Stimas Haposkim, as it is two separate Mitzvos, and changing areas is a Hefsek which requires a new blessing.

[215] Daas Torah 433

[216] Piskeiy Teshuvos 448:2; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:287, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 433:6; Nitei Gavriel

Ideally, the Gabbai is unable to sell the Chametz of the Shul, just like he may not nullify the Chametz, being that it does not belong to him but rather to others. However today that the Shuls themselves provide Chametz, and hence contain their own Chametz, there is room to say that they should sell the Chametz of the Shul.

[217] Admur 434:6

[218] The reason: The reason for this institution is because we suspect that one may find a significant piece of Chametz on Pesach and delay destroying it and thus transgress a Biblical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh. The explanation is as follows: The reason the sages instituted that one nullify his Chametz, is because they suspected that perhaps a significant piece of Chametz [i.e. any piece that has a Kezayis-434:11, or even if less than a Kezayis, but is significant such as dough-442:29, 460:5] was missed during the search, and since a significant piece is not considered automatically disowned, therefore one is to disown it before Pesach. Now, although even if a significant piece was missed one does not transgress even a Rabbinical Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh on this Chametz, being that he did a proper Bedika and is thus considered Anus [beyond his ability] regarding this Chametz, as explained in 433:12, nevertheless, the sages suspected that perhaps this Chametz will be found on Pesach and one will then transgress on it Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh. Now, although as soon as one finds the piece, [if] he destroys it immediately from the world [then he has not transgressed anything, nevertheless] the sages suspected that perhaps he will delay a little to begin the destruction of the Chametz, and on this delay one will transgress Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh. [Thus, the sages instituted] one to nullify all the [significant] Chametz which was not found by the search, as then even if he finds a significant piece of Chametz on Pesach and he delays destroying it immediately, then he will not transgress the Biblical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh, but rather only the Rabbinical one. [Admur ibid] [Vetzaruch Iyun as to why one must nullify even less than a kezayis of a significant piece of Chametz if in any event its ownership is only Rabbinical. Perhaps, however, this is required so one does not transgress a Rabbinical owning prohibition of Bal Yiraeh if he delays destroying it.]

Must one nullify crumbs? Crumbs of Chametz which are insignificant [i.e. bread less than a kezayis which is not significant-See Admur 434:11; 460:5] that were not found during the search and have thus remained in the cracks and holes and corners, are automatically nullified and thus there is no need for one to nullify and disown them as they are disowned on their own. The reason for this is because they are completely insignificant in the eyes of people, as even if he were to find them during the search he would not have taken them and eaten them but would have thrown them to a public area or burn them [with the rest of the Chametz]. [Admur ibid]

Chametz which one is aware of: The above bittul which is done on the night of the 14th immediately after the Bedika includes only the Chametz which is unknown to oneself, which was not found during the search. However, Chametz which one knows about, which one has intention to eat from it at night and the next day until the 5th hour, even if he nullifies it, it is not nullified. The reason for this is because the main aspect of bittul is in one’s heart that one removes his mind completely from the Chametz. Thus, this Chametz which he has left for his food, since his mind and heart have in mind to eat from it, it is not considered disowned to him. [Admur 434:10]

Must/can one nullify if he performs Mechiras Chametz: Included in the sale to the gentile is all known and unknown Chametz of a person, and Admur in the Seder Mechira states any Chametz which one plans to sell and buy back is not included in the Bittul. Accordingly, Tzaruch Iyun as to a) Why we do the Bittul, and what use it has? B) What use is the sale of unknown Chametz if Bittul was already done? See Chasam Sofer 62; 113; 119 who for this reason writes that the sale should be done before the Bittul; Perhaps, however, one can explain as follows: We do Bittul, as the Sages instituted, as perhaps for some reason the sale will not go through. In addition, the sale still includes the unknown nullified Chametz, as the gentile has acquired it Agav Karka. Just as he acquires disowned Chametz that is left in his property. See Minchas Yitzchak 8:41; Piskeiy Teshuvos 448:7 for a lengthy discussion on this matter

[219] The reason for why one should also say the nullification at night after the search, despite that he will anyways nullify the Chametz the next day: One may not rely on the second nullification done by day, and thus not nullify at night immediately after the Bedika, as the nullification done after the Bedika is an institution of the Talmudic sages which enacted that it be done immediately after the Bedika in order so there be a set time for the nullification to be done. If there were not a set time enacted for the nullification to be done, then people, being that they are naturally forgetful, would forget to do it at all. The reason for why the sages did not want to enact the set time of the nullification to be at the time that one destroys the Chametz, [and thus only one nullification would need to be done, and there would also be a set time for the nullification], is because the time that one needs to destroy the Chametz is from the letter of the law at the beginning of the 6th hour, as will be explained in chapter 445, and at that time one may no longer nullify his Chametz. The reason for why the sages did not want to enact the set time for the nullification to be on the day of the 14th before the time of destroying the Chametz [before the 6th hour, when one is still able to nullify] is because since one is not busy at that point with burning the Chametz or with searching for it, we therefore suspect that one may come to forget [about the set time of the sages and will thus forget] to do it, as he is not doing anything to remind him [about the Chametz prohibition]. However, at night, since one is dealing with the Bedika he is able to also remember to nullify the Chametz. Now although today in the latter generations the custom is to be stringent and destroy the Chametz at the end of the 5th hour and then nullify it at the time of destruction, nevertheless [since from the letter of the law one need not destroy the Chametz before the 6th hour] there is still suspicion that if one were to not nullify the Chametz immediately after the Bedika that perhaps he would forget to destroy the Chametz prior to the 6th hour [being that it is not required from the letter of the law] and by then he can no longer nullify the Chametz. Thus, the custom to be stringent and destroy and nullify the Chametz before the 6th hour was not coming to diminish from the institution of the sages [that one need not nullify at night], but to add to it [that one should also nullify during the day]. [Admur 434:13]

[220] Admur 434:7

[221] The reason one is not required to make it legally Hefker: The reason why this form of disowning is valid even though that in general the law states that one who desires to disown his property, and does so by saying that “my property is like dirt” has done nothing, nevertheless, here this suffices being that Chametz [after the 6th hour] at the time that one transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh, is not considered his at all, and one has no part or rights over it being that it is forbidden in benefit for him. One only transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh [when he has not disowned it] because the Torah considered the Chametz like it is his, in order for him to be associated with it so he transgress the above prohibition. Therefore [since anyways he really does not maintain legal ownership over the Chametz once it becomes prohibited] one does not need to disown it in the classical way by stating explicitly that it is disowned, and rather removing one’s mind from this Chametz and nullifying it in one’s heart and thought having it considered like dust, suffices to remove himself from having his name associated with it, and he will thus not transgress anything. [Admur ibid]

[222] The reason: The reason for why the sages enacted that the Bittul be said in Aramaic [and not Hebrew] is because [that was the language spoken back then] and there were [uneducated] people of the lands who did not understand Hebrew but rather Aramaic. [Admur 434:8]

[223] Some Poskim write that that the Bittul should be repeated three times. [Ben Ish Chaiy; Kaf Hachaim 434] This is not the Chabad custom.

[224] Admur 434:9; Siddur Admur [with some words added, as brought above]

The reason we mention yeast: When one says the nullification in Hebrew and other languages other than Aramaic, one needs to mention explicitly that he is nullifying both Chametz and yeast, as one transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh on both Chametz and yeast if one did not nullify them, as the verse says “Do not see for yourself Chametz” and  “Do not see for yourself yeast”. Thus, one needs to say in the statement of bittul that “All the Chametz and yeast which I have in my possession….” However, when one says the nullification in Aramaic, he does not need to mention both Chametz and yeast, as the word Chamirah includes both Chametz and yeast, as at times Chametz is called Chamirah. Nevertheless, it is proper for anyone meticulous in his actions to not rely on this and rather to mention both Chametz and yeast explicitly even when nullifying in Aramaic. Thus, one is to say “Kol chamirah Vechamia deika….” [Admur ibid]

[225] There is no need to explicitly mention that one disowns the Chametz. Nevertheless, anyone which is meticulous in his actions is to explicitly mention [within] the nullification said in Aramaic that he is disowning the Chametz. Thus, he should say “Lihaveiy hefker Kiafra diara”. [Admur ibid; However, the Yaavetz and others write that one should not say the term “Hefker” as anyways one’s house reacquires him the Chametz. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 434]

[226] Admur ibid; Nussach in Siddur

The reason for mentioning dust: The reason why we mention “dust of the earth” is because gold is also called dust “Afar”, we thus need to mention that we consider it the dust of the earth [in order so it be understood that we are nullifying it, and not considering it significant]. [Admur ibid]

[227] Admur 434:8

[228] The reason: The reason for why the sages enacted that the Bittul be said in Aramaic [and not Hebrew] is because [that was the language spoken back then] and there were [uneducated] people of the lands who did not understand Hebrew but rather Aramaic. For this reason, in these lands where the [uneducated] people do not understand Aramaic, they need to be taught and warned to say the bittul in a language which they understand, as the main aspect of the bittul is in ones heart, therefore one must understand in the heart what he is verbalizing with his lips. [Admur ibid]

[229] The reason: If one transgressed and said the bittul in a language which he does not understand at all, then if he understands the purpose behind the bittul, which is that he intends to nullify the Chametz and disown it, then even though he does not understand the meaning of the words which he has said with his lips, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation [of nullification]. However, those uneducated people, and women who do not at all know the meaning behind the bittul and its purpose, and they think that they are saying some sort of supplication and request, then even if they say it in Aramaic or Hebrew they have not fulfilled their obligation. The reason for this is because the main aspect of the nullification and disowning is in ones heart, and if one does not disown it in his heart, even if he verbalizes that he disowns it, it is meaningless, as every act of disowning requires ones intention and verbalization to be in tuned with each other. [Admur ibid]

[230] Admur 434:11

[231] Admur ibid; However, see 434:12 and 444:14 Admur writes that he “needs” to nullify the Chametz. To also not that the Rama 434 uses the term “Tov” while Admur changes and uses the word “Nachon”.

Is the second nullification said by day required from the letter of law or is it a mere stringency? From the letter of the law one fulfils his obligation with the 1st nullification said at night, and he does not need to repeat the nullification again the next day. The reason for this is because from the letter of the law we do not suspect that perhaps a kezayis of the Chametz which was set aside to be eaten [and was not included in the previous nights nullification] has rolled away [somewhere inside the house], as the Chametz which one sets aside to eat is hidden in a guarded area, and one is careful that none of it role off [into the house] The reason for why the nullification is repeated despite not being required is because in the later generations the custom became to be stringent [and suspect for that some Chametz has rolled off] and thus nullify the Chametz again. [Admur 434:13]

[232] The reason: The reason for why one should say a second nullification is because [the Chametz which one intended to eat at the time of the previous Bittul was not included in it, as explained above and] there is thus suspicion that perhaps a Kezayis of this Chametz which he ate from until the 5th hour has rolled and fell in one of the holes or corners. Now, when Pesach arrives, one may find it and delay destroying it and will then transgress a Biblical Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh, as a kezayis of Chametz is significant and is thus not nullified on its own. However, Chametz crumbs less than a Kezayis are insignificant and thus are anyways nullified. [Admur ibid]

[233] M”B 445:10 in name of Beis Meir, Chayeh Adam, Chemed Moshe; See Halacha 5E that the Biblical owning prohibition only applies to a Kezayis; See Kaf Hachaim 445:18; However see Admur 434:14 [brought in next footnote] “It is proper to be careful to only nullify the Chametz the second time, during the day, after one has destroyed from ones property all the Chametz which is known to him.”

[234] Admur 434:14

The reason: It is proper to be careful to only nullify the Chametz the second time, during the day, after one has destroyed from ones property all the Chametz which is known to him. The reason for why one should only nullify after destroying, is in order for one to be able to fulfill the mitzvah of destroying Chametz, with his own Chametz, as once the second bittul has been done the Chametz is no longer his, being that he has already nullified and disowned it. [Admur ibid]

[235] Admur 434:12; See Chapter 2 Halacha 8

[236] Admur 434:12

[237] The reason for why by the day nullification we include in the bittul all the Chametz that we own “that we see…”, is because we intend to nullify all Chametz and leave no Chametz over for ourselves, as opposed to the nights bittul in which one only intends to nullify the Chametz which he has not seen and found during the search, therefore [by the night bittul] he only mentions the Chametz “which I have not found and not destroyed” in his nullification. [Admur 434:12]

[238] This is said as perhaps there is some Chametz which he threw in the fire which is not completely burned, and thus needs nullification. Alternatively, this refers to Chametz which one plans to sell, and he thus is saying that if the sale does not work out, then the Chametz is nullified. [Daas Torah 434, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 434; To note however from Admur in Siddur, that bittul does not include any Chametz that one plans to sell. Vetzaruch Iyun]

[239] Admur 434:15

[240] 1st opinion in Admur ibid; M”A 434:9 in name of Ritva and Bach

[241] The reason: The reason for their opinion is because the law states that one who tells his friend do go and disown my property, the disowning is invalid until the owner himself disowns it. [Admur ibid]

[242] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber 434:4; Baal Haittur

[243] The reason: As the nullification does not need to be identical to the laws of hefker/disowning regarding this aspect. The reason for this is because [after the 6th hour] the Chametz that one transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh, is anyways not considered his at all, and one thus only transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh [when he has not disowned it] because the Torah considered the Chametz like it is his, in order for him to be associated with it so he transgress the above prohibition. Therefore, even a mere revelation of one’s opinion, that he reveals even through a messenger that he has no desire at all for the Chametz, suffices to remove himself from having his name associated with it, and he will thus not transgress anything. [Admur ibid]

[244] Michaber ibid

[245] Admur 446:2; Admur in gloss ibid “As well as explained in 434 it is proper for him in whichever place he is to also nullify his Chametz when the time of nullification arrives” [However, one may not Lechatchilah rely on his own nullification and thus not appoint his emissary to do so, as since one will not be doing a Bedika he may come to forget to do a nullification, as explained in 434 regarding the reason for why the nullification was instituted to be done after the Bedika and not the next day.]

[246] Admur 436:4 “After the household members search for Chametz it is proper for them to also nullify the Chametz, and they should be warned to do so, despite the fact that their nullification does not help much being that the Chametz is not theirs and the owner never commanded them to nullify it, and did not make them emissaries [to nullify it or] to check for it.”; Kuntrus Acharon 436:4; Michaber 434:4; This is unlike Magen Avraham in 434:10 who rules their nullification is worthless

The reason: The reason why their nullification does not help much even though one can assume that the owner desires that those remaining in his home nullify the Chametz for him, is because [in order for an emissary to be able to nullify] the owner must explicitly reveal that he wants it to be done, and if not then the nullification of the emissary is meaningless, as explained in chapter 434. The reason for why they should nullify it despite the fact that their nullification does not help much  is because we suspect that perhaps the owner will forget to nullify the Chametz in the place that he is in, as since he is not dealing with searching for Chametz and destroying it, it is probable that he will come to forget to do so, and then the Chametz will not be nullified at all. It is thus better for the household members to nullify the Chametz then it not being nullified at all. It is therefore proper to warn them to nullify it in order to remove oneself from doubt. [Admur 436:4]

[247] Admur 434:16

[248] Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim of Rebbe on Haggadah

[249] See Chapter 2 Halacha 6 and 8 for the full details of this subject!

[250] Admur 445:7

[251] The reason: The reason for this custom is based on the same reason for why the custom is to destroy the Chametz through burning it, being that we compare it to Nosar which is also burned with fire. The Mitzvah in burning Nosar is to be done only during the day and not by night as the verse states “And the leftover from the sacrifice on the 3rd day is to be burned in fire”. [Admur ibid; Alternatively, the reason is in order so one have something to remind him to do the Bittul.]

[252] Admur 434:12; 445:1

Background: Although one does not transgress a negative command when owning Chametz prior to the night of the 15th, nevertheless, he is Biblically obligated due to a positive command, to destroy all Chametz from his home from midday of the 14th and onwards. This obligation is called Tashbisu. If he did not destroy his Chametz [at that time], then he transgresses the positive command of Tashbisu for every moment thereon. [Admur 431:1] The above obligation to destroy the Chametz by midday is only from a Biblical perspective, however Rabbinically once the beginning of the 6th hour of the day has arrived one is to destroy the Chametz. [Admur 443:1] Now, from the letter of the law, one is only commanded to destroy the Chametz starting from the beginning of the 6th hour and onwards and not beforehand. [Admur 445:1] Nevertheless, the custom is to destroy the Chametz prior to the beginning of the 6th hour, as explained here.

[253] The reason: The reason for this is because since one needs to nullify the Chametz at the time that he destroys it, as explained above, therefore he must destroy the Chametz prior to the 6th hour, as from the 6th hour and onwards one can no longer nullify it, as explained in chapter 433. [Admur 434:12]

[254] Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim of Rebbe on Haggadah

[255] Admur 445:7

[256] Admur 445:7

The reason: The reason for why this is done is in order so one will not forget the obligation to burn his Chametz the next year and also in order so he not forget to nullify his Chametz a second time [the next day.] [Admur ibid]

[257] Admur 445:12

The reason: The reason for this is because anything used to do one mitzvah it is proper to do with it another Mitzvah. [Admur ibid]

[258] Admur 445:11 “When destroying the Chametz prior to the 6th hour, [being] that the Chametz is still permitted in benefit, one does not need to make a separate flame [from that of his cooking oven] for the Chametz, and he rather may burn it in his cooking oven, and use its heat to cook with, as well as he may get all other types of benefit from it. Furthermore, even after the 6th hour one may continue to benefit from the heat derived from the Chametz if the Chametz has already been burned, before the 6th hour, to the state of being inedible even to a dog. Nevertheless, the custom is to burn it separately [from ones cooking oven, and not benefit from it,] even when burning it prior to the 6th hour.”

[259] Admur 445:8

The reason: When one burns his Chametz after the 6th hour, [being] that the Chametz is [now] prohibited in benefit, one needs to burn it individually, and may not place it in his fire used to bake or cook on. Furthermore, one may not use its light or warm oneself up from it or receive any other forms of benefit from it similar to these. Furthermore, even the charcoal/ash of the Chametz is prohibited in benefit. However, the charcoal and ash of the wood used to burn the Chametz are permitted in benefit. Thus, if one recognizes the wood ash and knows for certain that the ash is from the wood and not from the Chametz [then it may be benefited from]. [Admur ibid]

[260] See Admur 445:7 that one may burn it also at night if he chooses, so there is no need to wait to burn it until the 5th hour of the day; See however Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:3 for other opinions

[261] See 1st opinion in Admur 436:21 “The mitzvah of “Tashbisu” is not a bodily obligation that one is obligated to have a house in order to destroy the Chametz from within it. Rather, the mitzvah is that if one has a house, and in that house he has Chametz, then he has the Mitzvah of TaShbisu. However, if he does not have a house, then he does not have any obligation at all.”; Admur ibid concludesPractically, one may be lenient like the second opinion, and one who wants to be stringent may do so; however, he should not rule this way for others”; See Chapter 2 Halacha 6B for other opinions; Chapter 3 Halacha 12A; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:6

[262] Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:1

[263] The reason: As a) Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mibishlucho, just like we say by Bedikas Chametz; b) So he has what to remind himself to nullify the Chametz, as explained in chapter above.

[264] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:1

[265] This is because once the Chametz is placed in a public property he is no longer obligated Biblically to destroy it, and thus he only fulfils the mitzvah of burning it Rabbinically.

[266] Rashash Shabbos 63

[267] Minchas Yitzchak 2:53; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:2

[268] Beir Moshe 5:122

[269] Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:5

[270] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 445:1

[271] See Admur Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[272] M”B 445:10 in name of Beis Meir, Chayeh Adam, Chemed Moshe; See Halacha 5E that the Biblical owning prohibition only applies to a Kezayis; See Kaf Hachaim 445:18

[273] Rav Avraham Chayim Naah in Yagdil Torah 6:2604

[274] Siddur Admur; Siddur Arizal

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