Until what time may Hamapil be recited-Saying Hamapil after midnight

Until what time may Hamapil be recited-Saying Hamapil after midnight:

After midnight-before daybreak: It is permitted to recite the blessing of Hamapil after midnight, up until daybreak.[1] However, some Poskim[2] rule one may not recite the blessing after midnight.[3] Practically, while the widespread custom is to say Hamapil with a blessing even after midnight, some are particular to say it without a blessing.

After daybreak-before sunrise: Once daybreak has arrived, one may no longer say the blessing, even if it is prior to sunrise.[4] Nonetheless, one is to recite the paragraph without the concluding blessing. Once sunrise has arrived, the blessing is not to be recited at all.[5]

 

Summary:

The blessing of Hamapil may be recited anytime throughout the night, up until Alos Hashachar. However, some are accustomed to say it without a blessing from midnight and onwards.

 

Q&A

If one is going to sleep prior to Alos, but is unsure if he will fall asleep before Alos, is Hamapil to be recited with a blessing?

Some Poskim[6] leave this matter in question, and hence Hamapil is to be recited without a blessing. Other Poskim[7], however, rule it is to be recited with a blessing.

In locations that have very few hours of nighttime, until when may Hamapil be recited?

Some[8] write that in countries where the time of Alos is when people normally go to sleep, then one may say the blessing even past Alos, until sunrise.

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[1] Birkeiy Yosef 239 in name of Lachmei Toda; Shaareiy Teshuvah 239:1; Biur Halacha 239:1 “Samuch”; Ashel Avraham Butchach 239; Kuntrus Alei Terufa; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 348; Keren Ledavid 60; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:115; Meishiv Halacha 419; Binyan David 29; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:198; Piskeiy Teshuvos 239:2

[2] Birkeiy Yosef 239 in name of Lachmei Toda, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 239:1; Chesed Lealafdim 239:10; Rav Poalim 1 Sod Meisharim 14; Kaf Hachaim 239:8 based on Shaar Hakavanos; Custom of Jerusalem in Yeshivas Hamekubalim Beis Keil; Yechaveh Daas 4:21 that Safek Brachos Lihakel

[3] The reason: This is based on Kabala, as after midnight, it is no longer the tiem of sleep in the upper worlds. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[4] Biur Halacha ibid; Ashel Avraham Butchach 239; Keren Ledavid 60; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:115; Meishiv Halacha 419; Binyan David 29;

The reason: As we compare the blessing of Hamapil to the blessing of Hashkiveinu, which may only be recited until Alos. [Biur Halacha ibid]

[5] Biur Halacha ibid

[6] Biur Halacha ibid; Meishiv Halacha 419; Binyan David 29; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[7] Ashel Avraham Butchach 239

[8] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:198

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