Siyum Misechta

Siyum Misechta:[1]

The making of a Siyum:[2] When one completes a Misechta it is a Mitzvah to rejoice and hold a [public[3]] festive meal for the occasion. [One may make several meals, throughout several days in honor of the Siyum.[4]]

The status of the meal:[5] The festive meal held for the occasion of a Siyum Misechta is considered a Seudas Mitzvah.

When to finish the Misechta and make the Siyum:[6] Upon reaching the end of a Misechta, one is to leave a small section at the end of the Misechta to be learnt on the day that he plans to make the Siyum and festive meal, thereby completing the Misechta on that occasion.

Attendance:[7] It is a great Mitzvah and obligation for others to join the Siyum celebration, and take part in his Simcha, even though they did not complete the Misechta.

The order of the Siyum-Kaddish and Asara Bnei Rav Papa:[8] After completing the final lines of the Misechta during the Siyum celebration, Kaddish Derabanan is to be recited if a Minyan is present. One is to strive to have a Minyan by the Siyum in order to say this Kaddish. The prayer of [Hadran Alach and] Asara Bnei Rav Papa is recited [before the Kaddish].[9] [Other prayers are also customarily added, including a prayer within the Kaddish Hagadol. The Chabad custom is to recite the regular Hadran Alach, Aseres Bnei Rav Papa, and then go straight to a regular Kaddish Derabanan.[10]]

 

May an Avel participate in a Siyum Misechta:

Within Shloshim:[11] It is forbidden for an Avel during Shloshim to participate in a meal for a Siyum Misechta.

After Shloshim: Some Poskim[12] rule it is permitted for an Avel after Shloshim to participate in a meal for a Siyum Misechta.[13]  This however only applies if the Avel also participated in the learning.[14] Other Poskim[15] however rule it is forbidden to participate unless the meal is taking place in one’s home. Practically, the custom is to be stringent.[16]

Inside the home of the Avel:[17] If the meal is taking place inside of the home of the Avel then the custom is to be lenient to participate in any meal.[18]

 

Q&A

On which Misechtos can a Siyum be made?

·         Finishing Chamisha Chumshei Torah with a commentary.[19]

·         Completion of one of the Sefarim of Navi together with a commentary of the Rishonim.[20] However, it is disputed in Poskim if one may learn a single Sefer simply for the sake of making a Siyum and exempting oneself from a fast.[21]

·         A Misechta in Shash.[22] This includes even one of the short Misechtas, such as Miseches Kallah, Sofrim, Avos Derebbe Nasan.[23] Some Poskim[24] rule one may make a Siyum even on one Perek of a Misechta. It is best to make a Siyum that follows all opinions.[25]

·         A Misechta of Talmud Yerushalmi.[26]

·         A complete Seder of Shisha Sidrei Mishneh.[27]

·         Some Poskim[28] rule one may make a Siyum on a single Misechta of Mishnayos in Shisha Sidrei Mishneh, if one learned it in depth with the commentaries. However, it is disputed in Poskim if one may learn a single Misechat simply for the sake of making a Siyum and exempting oneself from a fast.[29] Practically, it is best to make a Siyum that follows all opinions.[30]

·         A Sefer of Zohar, even if one does not understand.[31]

·         Completion of one of the four sections of Shulchan Aruch.[32]

·         Completion of the Rambam’s Mishneh Torah.[33]

·         Completion of the writing of a Sefer in Chidushei Torah.[34]

 

Can one make a Siyum if he did not comprehend what he learned?[35]
No. the Siyum can only be made if one understand, to some level, the words that he read. However, a Siyum may be made if one understand majority of the material, even though some of the material was not understood.[36]

Can one make a Siyum on a later date if he already completed the Misechta?
The Siyum celebration must be made in close proximity to the completion of the Misechta, as otherwise the Simcha dissipates.[37] In the event that the Misechta was completed many days earlier, seemingly, the Siyum celebration does not have the status of a Seudas Mitzvah. Perhaps, however, if he concluded the last lines only superficially, with intent to study it in greater depth on the day of the Siyum, then this is also valid. Vetzaruch Iyun!

May one make a Siyum if he learned the Misechta out of order?[38]
Yes.

May one make a Siyum Misechat if it was studied in parts by several individuals?[39]
Yes.

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[1] See Sefer Askinu Seudasa

[2] Rama Y.D. 246/26; O.C. 551/10; Nimukei Yosef Bava Basra Perek Yeish Nochalin; Shabbos 118b “Abayey said “When we would see a Torah scholar complete a Misechta we would make a celebratory day.”; Midrash Raba Koheles; Midrash Raba Shir Hashirim; Lekach Tov Tzav in name of Pesikta;

[3] Igros Kodesh 14/374

[4] Chavos Yair 70 that a meal may be held also the next day, and perhaps even the day later, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 246/78; Aruch Hashulchan 246/27

[5] Rama Y.D. 246/26; O.C. 551/10; Nimukei Yosef Bava Basra Perek Yeish Nochalin; Or Zarua 2/407

[6] Shach 246/27 in name of Mahram Mintz 2/119; Aruch Hashulchan 246/44 based on Moed Katan 9a; Kaf Hachaim 551/161

[7] Shach 246/27 in name of Mahram Mintz 2/119; Taz 246/9 in name of Rashal

[8] Shach 246/27 in name of Mahram Mintz 2/119;

[9] Shach ibid; Maharam Mintz 2/119; Teshuvas Harama in end; Rashal in Yam Shel Shlomo Bava Kama 37; Rav Haiy Gaon, brought in Sefer Haeshkol

The reason: Some suggests that Rav Papa was wealthy, and was accustomed to make a large Siyum for his sons when they would complete a Misechta. The ten sons also correspond to the ten utterances with which the world was created. [Rama ibid] Alternatively, the sons of Rav Papa are mentioned because they all passed away Al Kiddush Hashem during the lifetime of their father, and hence we mention their name Leiluiy Nishmas. [Zecher Yehoseif on Miseches Brachos]

[10] Reshimos Devarim of Rav Chitrik 4/219; Directive of Rebbe to Rav Binyamon Althouse; Toras Menachem 4/239 that the Rebbe remarked to Rav Meir Ashkenazi who said the long Kaddish “This is a novelty to me, and I have never seen this done beforehand.”; See also Hisvadyus 5745 3/1700

[11] Rama 391/2; Even those Poskim who are lenient by a Seudas Mitzvah that does not contain Simcha [see Shach 246/27 in name of Maharam Mintz 119, brought in Rav Akiva Eiger 391/1; Degul Merivava 391; Pischeiy Teshuvah 391/5; Beis Lechem Yehuda 391; Gilyon Maharsha 391; Gesher Hachaim 21; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 29/1 footnote 2] are only lenient after Shloshim!

[12] Shach 246/27 in name of Maharam Mintz 119, brought in Rav Akiva Eiger 391/1; Degul Merivava 391; Pischeiy Teshuvah 391/5; Beis Lechem Yehuda 391; Gilyon Maharsha 391; Gesher Hachaim 21; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 29/1 footnote 2

[13] The reason: As they hold it is permitted to participate in a Seudas Mitzvah that does not contain Simcha, unlike the ruling of the Rama that the custom is to be stringent.

[14] Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid

[15] Rama 391/2; See Taz 391/5; Chochmas Adam 166/2; Derech Hachaim; Tuv Taam Vedaas 3/86; Pnei Baruch 20/24 footnote 60; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 29/1 footnote 1; See Kitzur SHU”A 212 in Lechem Hapanim 1 who asks on Shach and Poskim ibid based on Rama ibid

[16] Nitei Gavriel 29/1

[17] Rama 391/2

[18] The reason: As one is not required to leave his home because of a Simcha taking place there.

[19] Igros Moshe O.C. 1/157; See Rama 669; Askinu Seudasa Miluim 1

[20] Minchas Pitim Y.D. 246/26; Pnei Yehoshua Brachos 17a; Halef Lecha Shlomo 386; Igros Moshe O.C. 1/157; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1/300

[21] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 470/9

[22] Rama ibid

[23] Pischa Zuta in name of Hadras Kodesh; Rebbe in meeting with Pnei Menachem of Ger, printed in Hisvadyus 5744 13th Adar Rishon

[24] Mentioned in Hisvadyos 5749 4/86; 5750 1/97; Rebbe in meeting with Pnei Menachem of Ger, printed in Hisvadyus 5744 13th Adar Rishon

[25] Rebbe ibid

[26] Rebbe in meeting with Pnei Menachem of Ger, printed in Hisvadyus 5744 13th Adar Rishon

[27] Pnei Meivin 103; Betzeil Hachochma 4/99

[28] Peri Hasadeh 3/91; Binyan Shlomo 59; Betzeil Hachochma 4/99; Afrakasa Deanya 1/154-3; Mentioned in Hisvadyos 5749 4/86; 5750 1/97; See Yabia Omer 1/26

[29] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 470/9

[30] Rebbe ibid

[31] Yabia Omer 1/26

[32] Beis Avi 2/52; Mishneh Halachos 6/166

[33] Likkutei Sichos 32/271

[34] Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 113/10 in name of Tiferes Shmuel 55

[35] Piskeiy Teshuvos 470/9

[36] Afrakasa Deanya 1/154

[37] See Shach ibif in name of Maharam of Mintz that one who desires to delay the Siyum celebration is to leave some lines unlearned.

[38] Minchas Yitzchak 2/93; Betzeil Hachochma 2/28

[39] Kinyan Torah 5/52

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