Obligation to answer Amen, Kaddish, Kedusha if one is not participating in the Minyan

Must one answer Amen, and answer to Kaddish and Kedusha of a Minyan that he is not participating in?

Not in same room as Minyan: If one is not in the same room as the Minyan and hears Kaddish or Kedusha, some Poskim[1] rule that although he is allowed to answer to the Minyan, nevertheless he is not obligated to do so. Other Poskim[2] however rule that he is obligated to answer, even if he is in another room and is not participating in the Minyan. If however one is in the middle of a Mitzvah, such as Davening or learning Torah, he is not obligated to answer.[3]

In same room as Minyan: If one is in the same room as the Minyan then [according to all] he is obligated to answer together with them for Kaddish and Kedusha, and answer Amen to their Bracha.[4] If however one is in the middle of a Mitzvah, such as Davening or learning Torah, he is not obligated to answer.[5] However even in such a case one should answer for Kedusha and Modim, in order so he not explicitly exclude himself from the congregation.[6]


 



[1] Implication of wording of Admur and Michaber ibid who write “he is allowed to answer” and not “he is obligated to answer”; See Halichos Shlomo 9 footnote 8; Ishei Yisrael 24 footnote 2; Tzitz Eliezer 11/3; Rivivos Efraim 1/89; Piskeiy Teshuvos 55/29

[2] Kaneh Bosem 3/4; Ishei Yisrael ibid in name of Chazon Ish; See also Igros Kodesh 15/185 regarding answering Kaddish and Kedusha between the Sel Yad and Shel Rosh that the wording of “permitted” used by Admur in the Siddur implies that one is obligated to answer

[3] Toras Chaim Sofer 66/8 that one who is involved in a Mitzvah is exempt from a Mitzvah; Salmas Chaim 62; Kinyan Torah 4/9; Pischa Zuta 5; Shevet Halevi 9/43; Tzitz Eliezer 11/3; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2/73-74; Yabia Omer 9/3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 51/11 and 55/29; Vetzaruch Iyun from Igros Kodesh ibid that one is obligated to answer in-between the Shel Yad and Shel Rosh even though one is in the midst of a Mitzvah.

[4] Admur 215/1 regarding answering Amen to a blessing; Shevet Halevi 9/43 regarding Amen for Birchas Hashachar; See Toras Chaim Sofer ibid “He is obligated to answer [Kaddish and Kedusha] in order so he does not appear like one who denies what the congregation is saying”

[5] Toras Chaim Sofer 66/8 that one who is involved in a Mitzvah is exempt from a Mitzvah; Shevet Halevi 9/43; Tzitz Eliezer 11/3; Salmas Chaim 62; Kinyan Torah 4/9; Pischa Zuta 5; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2/73-74; Yabia Omer 9/3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 51/11 and 55/29 and 124/8; Vetzaruch Iyun from Igros Kodesh ibid that one is obligated to answer in-between the Shel Yad and Shel Rosh even though one is in the midst of a Mitzvah.

[6] Halichos Shlomo 9/6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 51 footnote 95 and 124 footnote 83 based on Poskim in previous footnote

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