Accidentally ate on Fast Day

 

If one forgot and ate or drank on the fast day:[1]

Is he to continue fasting that day?[2] If one ate or drank on a public[3] fast day, he is nevertheless required to continue fasting for the rest of that day, and is forbidden to eat or drink any further. [It does not help to make up the fast on another day, and one must stop eating/drinking even if he plans to do so.[4]]

Making up the fast another day:[5] If one ate or drank on a public[6] fast day it does not help to make up the fast on another day, and he is not required to do so. Nevertheless, one may fast on another day as atonement for the fact he ate on the fast day. This atonement fast is not a requirement.[7] Some Poskim[8] however rule one is to fast three fasts [Bahab], as atonement for breaking the fast. [Practically, the main ruling follows that one is not required to fast even as atonement, and if he desires an atonement he should either fast or give charity to paupers in place of an atonement fast. If however one deliberately ate or drank on a fast day, then he is to fast Bahab, or make up the fasts with charity. [9]]

Summary:
If one ate or drank on a public fast day, he is nevertheless required to continue fasting for the rest of that day, and is forbidden to eat or drink any further. It does not help to make up the fast on another day, and he is not required to do so. Nevertheless, if he desires atonement he should fast another day or give charity to paupers in place of atonement fast.

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[1] See Kaf Hachaim 549/6-7; 568/7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 568/3

[2] Michaber 568/1; Rif Taanis in name of Yerushalmi; Kaf Hachaim 549/6

[3] However by a private fast day, the fast is lost once he eats a Kezayis of food [Michaber ibid] or a Revius of drink. [Birkeiy Yosef 568; Shaareiy Teshuvah 568/2]

[4] P”M 568 A”A 4; M”B 568/2; Kaf Hachaim 568/6

[5] M”A 568/4; Kaf Hachaim 549/7 and 568/7

[6] However by a private fast day, the fast is lost once he eats a Kezayis of food [Michaber ibid] or a Revius of drink [Birkeiy Yosef 568; Shaareiy Teshuvah 568/2] and he is thus required to make up the fast another day. [Michaber ibid]

[7] M”A ibid; Teurmos Hadeshen 156; P”M 568 A”A 4; Mamar Mordechai 568/4; Shulchan Gavoa 549/3; M”B 568/8; Kaf Hachaim ibid that so is main ruling and implication of Rama

[8] Drashos Mahril Taanis; M”A ibid and Darkei Moshe 568 “One time, an individual accidently ate on the 10th of Teves and the Maharil directed him to fast Bahab.” Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola 549/2; See however Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Poskim that perhaps this refers to a case that one did not fast at all that day; See however Kitzur SHU”A 127/16 who implies even if he did fast the rest of the day he is to fast Bahab; See Kaf Hachaim ibid and Poskim there that implies according to Maharil one is required to make up the fast with these three fasts. See however M”B ibid who clearly learns even the Maharil said so only as atonement.

[9] See Kaf Hachaim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

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